Учебное пособие по английскому языку Краснодар 2007 81. 2 Англ. У. 91 Печатается по решению



НазваниеУчебное пособие по английскому языку Краснодар 2007 81. 2 Англ. У. 91 Печатается по решению
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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ВНУТРЕННИХ ДЕЛ

РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ


КРАСНОДАРСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ


СТРАНОВЕДЕНИЕ ВЕЛИКОБРИТАНИИ И США


Учебное пособие

по английскому языку


Краснодар

2007


81. 2 Англ.

У.91

Печатается по решению

редакционно-издательского совета

Краснодарского университета МВД России



Рецензенты: Тхорик Владимир Ильич,

доктор филологических наук, профессор

декан факультета романо-германской филологии,

Кубанский государственный университет;

^ Мятченко Ирина Васильевна,

кандидат филологических наук, доцент,

зав. Кафедрой русского и иностранного языков,

Краснодарский университет МВД России;


Составитель: ^ Нетребко Елена Эдуардовна,

преподаватель кафедры русского и иностранных языков,

Краснодарский университет МВД России;


Учебное пособие по английскому языку «Страноведение Великобритании и США» » (географическое, экономическое положение, политический строй, население, государственное устройство, конституционное право) по специальностям 030501.65 – юриспруденция и 030505.65 – правоохранительная деятельность – Краснодар: Краснодарский университет МВД России - 179 с.


Учебное пособие написано в соответствии с государственным образовательным стандартом для курсантов, слушателей, студентов, обучающихся по специальностям 030501.65 – юриспруденция и 030505.65 – правоохранительная деятельность. Пособие может быть использовано как для аудиторных, так и внеаудиторных занятий.

Краснодарский университет МВД России, 2007


Данное учебное пособие «Страноведение Великобритании и США» (географическое, экономическое положение, политический строй, население, государственное устройство, конституционное право) является одним из циклов учебно-методических материалов, предназначенных для обучения английскому языку курсантов, слушателей, студентов, обучающихся по специальностям 030501.65 – юриспруденция и 030505.65 – правоохранительная деятельность, рассчитано на 56 часов практических занятий (II семестр, 1 и 2 факультет) в Краснодарском университете МВД России. Основная цель пособия – обеспечить практическое владение обучающихся всеми видами речевой деятельности по темам «Страноведение Великобритании и США».


Оглавление

Раздел I Базовые и дополнительные тексты по темам …………………………

5

Тема 4. Great Britain (географическое, экономическое положение, политический строй, население) ………………………

5

Тема 5a. State and Government of the UK ……………………………

29

Тема 5b. The British Constitution ………………………………………

50

Тема 6. The USA (географическое, экономическое положение, политический строй, население) …………………………

78

Тема 7a.The US System of Government ………………………………

84

Тема 7b. The Constitution of the USA and the Bill of Rights ……………

99

Раздел II Грамматика

108

Тема 4. Типы вопросительных предложений. ………………………

108

Суффиксы существительных, прилагательных и наречеий

113

Тема 5. Причастие I, II ……………………………………………….

57-58, 115

Времена группы Continuous......................................................

124

Модальные глаголы...................................................................

128

Тема 6. Времена группы Perfect………………………………………

147

Тема 7. Причастные обороты…………………………………………

168

Раздел III Вопросы к зачету (II семестр)

176




















Раздел I

Тема 4. Базовый текст.

^ GREAT BRITAIN


The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British s. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 square kilometres.

The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals arc London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast respec­tively. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales and does not include Northern Ireland. But in everyday speech 'Great Britain' is used to mean the United Kingdom. The capital of the UK is London.

The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountain­ous and is called the Highlands, while the south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The north and west of England arc mountainous, but all the rest — east, centre and south-cast — is a vast plain. Mountains are not very high. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1343m).

There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one.

The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole year round.

The UK is one of the world's smaller countries. Its population is over 57 million. About 80% of the population is urban.

The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.

The UK is a constitutional monarchy. In law, the Head of State is the Queen. In practice, the Queen reigns, but does not rule. The country is ruled by the elected govern­ment with the Prime Minister at the head. The British Parliament consists of two cham­bers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour, the Conservative and the Liberal parties. The Labour party is the ruling party nowadays. The Prime Minister is Gordon Brown.


Names

^ The United [ju:'naitid] Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern [no:ðən] Ireland ['aiələnd] — Соединен­ное Королевство Великобритании и Север­ной Ирландии

the British Isles [ailz] — Британские острова

Edinburgh ['edinbərə] — Эдошбург

^ Cardiff ['ka:dif] — Кардифф

Belfast [bel'fa:st] — Белфаст

the North Sea — Северное море

the English Channel [t∫ænl] — Английский канал (принятое в Великобритании название про­лива Ла-Манш)

the Irish ['aiəri∫] Sea - Ирландское море

the Atlantic Ocean [ə'tlæntik 'ou∫n]— Атлантиче­ский океан

Highlands ['hailəndz] — гористая часть Lowlands ['louləndz] — низменная часть ^ Ben Nevis [ben'nevis] — Бен Невис

the Severn ['sevən] — Северн

the Thames [temz] — Темза

Gulf Stream [gΛlfstri:m] — Гольфстрим

the House of Lords — палата лордов

the House of Commons — палата общин

the Labour ['leibə], the Conservative [kən'sə:vətiv] and the Liberal ['libərəl] parties — Лейборист­ская, Консервативная и Либеральная партии

Vocabulary

to be situated ['sitjueitid] — быть расположенным

to consist [kən'sist] of— состоять из

total area ['toutl 'εəriə] — общая площадь

kilometre ['kilə,mi:tə] — километр

respectively [ri'spektivli] —соответственно

to include [in'klu:d] — включать

to mean [mi:n] (meant, meant)— означать

to separate ['sepəreit] — разделять

to wash — омывать

surface ['sə:fis] — поверхность

to vary ['vεəri] — менять(ся), разнообразить

mountainous ['mauntinəs] — гористый

valley ['væli] — долина

vast [va:st] — огромный

plain — равнина

deep — глубокий

to influence ['influəns] — влиять

climate [klaimit] — климат

mild [maild] — мягкий, умеренный

the whole year round — круглый год

population — население

urban ['ə:bən] — городской

highly developed [di'veləpt] — высокоразвитый

producer [prə'dju:se] — производитель

exporter [ikspo:tə] — экспортер

machinery [mə'∫inəri] — машинное оборудова­ние

electronics [elik'troniks] — электроника

textile ['tekstail] — текстиль

aircraft ['εəkra:ft]— самолеты

navigation [nævi'gei∫n] — судоходство

equipment [i'kwipmənt] — оборудование

chief [t∫i:f] — главный, основной

shipbuilding — кораблестроение

constitutional monarchy [,konsti'tju:∫ənl 'monəki] — конституционная монархии

law [lo:] — закон

in law — по закону

the head of state — глава государства

queen [kwi:n] — королева

in practice ['præktis] — фактически, на практике

to reign [rein] — царствовать

to rule [ru:l] — править

to elect [i'lekt] — выбирать

government [gΛvənmənt] — правительство

Prime Minister — премьер министр

at the head — во главе

parliament ['pa:ləmənt] — парламент

chamber ['t∫eimbə] — палата





Questions

  1. The UK is an island state, isn't it? Where is it situated?

  2. What countries is the UK made of? What are their capitals?

  3. What channel separates the British Isles from the European continent?

  4. The surface of the British Isles varies very much, doesn't it?

  5. What is the north of Scotland called? What is the south of Scotland called?

  6. What's the highest mountain in Scotland?

  7. Are there a lot of long and deep rivers in Great Britain?

  8. Why is the climate of the British Isles mild?

  9. Is the UK a large country?

  10. What's the UK's population?

  11. The UK is a highly developed industrial country. What does it produce and export?

  12. The UK is a constitutional monarchy. What does it mean?



Дополнительные тексты для чтения темы 4 «Great Britain»

Текст 1

T
Britain — an anglicized form of Britannia, the Roman name for what is now England, Wales and Scotland. In the 4th century ВС the inhabitants were known as Pretannoi, and under the Roman occupation they were known as Brittanni.
he British Isles.



The name of Great Britain was first officially used in 1604, when James I was proclaimed 'King of Great Britain'. It had been used earlier by some writers, however, to distinguish Britain from Britannia Minor, or Brittany, in France.





The British Isles refers to the geographical group of islands from near the French coast to the far north near Iceland.

Great Britain refers to England, Wales and Scotland. It is the main island.

The United Kingdom is the administrative title and includes Great Britain and Norrhern Ireland.


Текст 2.

England


  1. Read the text about England and find out what special features different regions of England have.

Albion is an ancient and poetic name for England or Great Britain, perhaps from the white (Latin albus) cliffs of Dover, but possibly from Celtic alp, which means 'rock'.

England is often subdivided into three parts: the South, the Midlands and the North:

T
"This is blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. " William Shakespeare
he South. The landscape is varied.

The climate is warmer than in the other areas. There are hundreds of miles of sea coast which vary from flat, sandy or stony beaches to high rocky cliffs. The mild and sunny climate makes the south coast popular with holiday-makers. Some coastal resorts are famous, Brighton among them.

Somerset, Devon and Cornwall are rural counties, tucked away with hidden fishing hamlets and Britain's warmest weather in winter. There are high, bare hills, rock and deep wooded valleys Inland, the landscape is gentle and green; it is famous for its fertile farmland, the calm, tranquil and quiet beauty of its countryside. One of the most beautiful counties in the South of England is certainly Kent. It is known as the Garden of England, because it is famous for its picturesque orchards which produce a lot of fruit and vegetables.


"Our England Is a garden that Is full of stately views ... " Rudyard Kipling

Another area which has some of the richest farmland in the country is known as the Fens and lies to the east of Cambridge.

This land was drained and now the Fen Country consists of miles of flat land with almost no trees or hedges.

I
A fen is land which is

lowlying and wet, often

partly covered with water.
n general, the South is wealthier than other areas of Britain. Work of all kinds is provided on the land, trade and industry. British Aerospace has factories building aeroplanes in several parts of the South. Lots of people are involved in service industries including financial, business and government services, computer services and information systems. There are science-based companies and research organizations.

The Midlands. The Midlands Region has much farming land, but this part of the country is better known as an industrial area, one of England's most productive regions.

Birmingham which is often called the Big Heart of England, is the most important city of the Midlands. It is the second largest city in the United Kingdom. Birmingham and the neighbouring industrial city of Coventry are famous for engineering, especially car production.

Derby is another engineering centre. Rolls Royce make aero engines and cars there.

^ Rolls Royce a well-known firm founded in 1906 by Charles Stewart Rolls and Henry Royce, is the symbol all over the world of high quality automobile engineering.

The Potteries is another industrial area in the Midlands. It lies around the city of Stoke-on-Trent and produces china, crockery and all kinds of ceramics, some of which are famous worldwide, Wedgwood among them.


Wedgwood is a famous make of pottery and china. The most famous Wedgwood design has raised classical style decorations in white on a pale blue background, named after the potter Josiah Wedgwood (1730 - 95).


The West Midlands, another industrialized area where there are many collieries and steelworks, is known as the Black Country because of the black smoke and blackened buildings there.

In contrast, the Midlands region has some beautiful picturesque countryside in the Peak District with its National Park.

The North. The weather is considerably colder. There is almost always snow in winter.

This is a region of great natural beauty although industry of some kind h.is existed here for hundreds of years. There is a great contrast in the North between the beautiful open, hilly countryside and the industrial towns and mining villages.

In puts of the North — in Yorkshire particularly — title wooded valleys and green pastures and excellent farming land. West Yorkshire is very good country for sheep-farming, and it has long been Britain's most important area for the wool industry. Coal is one of the few natural resources found in the North of England. Some famous industrial cities in the North are Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds and Newcastle-on-Tyne.

What are England s most remarkable places?

Compare different parts of England.

Where, in your opinion, is most of England s population concentrated? Give your reasons.


Whitehall is a street in central London running from Trafalgar Square to the Houses of Parliament and containing many important buildings and government offices: the Foreign and Commonwealth Offices, the Treasury, Admiralty and Ministry of Defence. In the centre of the roadway stands the Cenotaph, the memorial to the fallen of both world wars. The Prime Minister's residence at No. 10 Downing Street is directly connected to Whitehall.

London is always full of life. The streets are crowded with traffic. High 'double-decker' buses rise above the smaller cars and vans.

The City of London today is the financial powerhouse of the country and one of the chief commercial centres of the western world.

The City has its own Lord Mayor, its own j government and its own police force. Here the medieval buildings stand side by side with modern steel and glass high-rise office blocks. The territory of the City of just I over one square mile contains several banks, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and offices of many financial companies.

The parks of London provide a welcome contrast to the great built-up areas. St. James's Park, Green Park, Hyde Park, and Kensington Gardens are linked together. They form 313 hectares of open parkland in the heart of London.



  1. Why is London called the least typical part of Britain while being the capital of the country?

  2. What makes the City of London a powerhouse of the country?

  3. Comment on the words "When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life ".



  1. Read this information about some places of interest in England. Find out:

  • which of them have historic or literary associations;

  • which are noted for their outstanding beauty;

  • which are linked with the sea.

Stonehenge: a prehistoric complex on Salisbury Plain,Wiltshire, regarded as one of the most important monuments of its kind in Europe, and very popular with visitors. The great circle of standing stones is believed to have had some religious or astronomical purpose.

Windsor: a town on the Thames, not far from London. Its castle has been a royal residence for nine centuries. Seen from a distance it is beautiful beyond imagination. Windsor Castle has a long and fascinating history.

Some of the interior apartaments are open to the public when the Sovereign is not in residence.

Canterbury: an ancient city in Kent, with a majestic cathedral which dominates it. Canterbury is a religious capital of England. It was built in the 11th-15th centuries, and became a place of pilgrimage in medieval times after the murder of Thomas a Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury.

Brighton: a popular seaside resort, famous for the architecture of the Royal Pavillion built in an oriental style. Brighton is known for its farge conference centre, where many important political and scientific meeting are held.

Portsmouth: a large city on the south coast particularly rich in associations with the Royal Navy. The flagship of Lord Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar, Victory, still stands in the port and it ranks as one of Britain's greatest tourist attractions.

Portsmouth is the birthplace of Charles Dickens. The house where he spent his childhood is now a museum.

Текст 3.

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