Учебное пособие по английскому языку для психологов Краснодар 2011



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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ВНУТРЕННИХ ДЕЛ

РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ


КРАСНОДАРСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ


ENGLISH

Учебное пособие

по английскому языку для психологов


Краснодар

2011


81.2 Анг. Печатается по решению

У.91 редакционно-издательского совета

Краснодарского университета МВД России


Рецензенты: Тхорик Владимир Ильич, доктор филологических наук, профессор

(Кубанский государственный университет)

Кулинская Светлана Валерьевна, кандидат филологических наук,

доцент (Краснодарский университет МВД России)


Составители:^ Мятченко Ирина Васильевна,

кандидат филологических наук, доцент,

зав. кафедрой русского и иностранных языков,

(Краснодарский университет МВД России)

^ Манина Татьяна Александровна,

ст. преподаватель русского и иностранных языков,

(Краснодарский университет МВД России)

Гончарова Людмила Викторовна,

преподаватель кафедры русского и иностранных языков,

(Краснодарский университет МВД России)


Учебное пособие по английскому языку для психологов / сост. И.В. Мятченко, Т.А. Манина, Л.В. Гончарова. - Краснодар: Краснодарский университет МВД России,2011.-89 с.


Учебное пособие написано в соответствии с государственным образовательным стандартом для курсантов, слушателей, студентов, обучающихся по специальности «Психология». Пособие может быть использовано для самостоятельной работы и подготовки к занятиям и включает в себя тексты для внеаудиторного чтения, грамматический материал, составление писем, оформление конверта.


ББК 81.2 Анг.


И.В. Мятченко, Т.А. Манина, Л.В. Гончарова, составление, 2011


©Краснодарский университет МВД России,2011

^ FOUNDERS OF PSYCHOLOGY

GUSTAV FECHNER


Gustav Fechner was born on April 1, 1801. His father, a vil­lage pastor, died early in Gustav's childhood, so he, his mother and brother went to live with their uncle. In 1817 at the age of 16 he went off to study medicine at the University of Leipzig. He received his doctor degree in 1822 at the age of 21. His interests were physics and math, so he made his living tutoring and translating. After writing a good paper on electricity in 1831, he was invited to become a professor of physics at Leipzig. He became friends with a lot of people, among them was Wilhelm Wundt, his interests directed to psychology.

Using the pseudonym Dr. Mises, he wrote many articles about medicine and philosophy. He moved his interests to spir­itual perspective. He believed that all of nature was alive and capable of awareness of one degree or another. Even the planet earth itself, he thought, had a soul. He called this the day-view, and opposed it to the night-view of materialism.

He felt that our lives come in three stages — the fetal life, the ordinary life and the life after death. When we die our soul join with other souls as a part of the supreme soul. That led him to study psychophysics, which he defined as the study of the systematic relationships between physical events and mental events. In 1860 he published his famous book the Elements of Psychophysics.


^ MODERN PSYCHOLOGY


Psychology is one of those disciplines which clearly bring out the importance of correct philosophical approach to the study of both general theoretical problems and concrete aspects of personality and interpersonal relations. Specialising at the in­terface between natural and social sciences and reaching out respectively into the province of natural psychology, psycho-physiology, etc., on the one hand, and social psychology, peda­gogical psychology, etc., on the other, the science of the mind is highly illustrative of the beneficial influence of the teaching on the progress of science.

The 20th century is marked by a break of psychology with idealist and metaphysical philosophy. Modern scientific psy­chology rests on scientific philosophical notions, the concep­tion of the mind as reflection of the objective world by the brain, as a property of highly organized matter. Psychology focuses on the role of the mind in man's practical activity and develop­ment.

Psychology has set itself to develop the scientific principles of investigation into its major problems. At present it can boast of its own subject-matter, its specific tasks and specific meth­ods of research. Its material is based on psychological research centers, laboratories and educational institutions training per­sonnel for research activities as well as of a number of journals and specialized publishing houses. International psychological congresses are held on a regular basis, psychologists form sci­entific associations and societies. The role of psychology as a leading science about man is universally recognized.

^ PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE


The word "psyche" has a double meaning: it means a reflec­tion of an objective world and a subjective innate world of an individual.

Psychological knowledge appeared when people recognized for the first time that each of them is different from other living beings. Development of psychological idea came through par­allel forming of basic concepts of understanding as a whole.

Earlier philosophical learning also concerned with psycho­logical aspects which were discussed either in terms of ideal­ism or in terms of materialism. Ancient materialists minded philosophers such as Democrit, Epicur and so on understood man's soul as a variety of matter, as a body formed from the smallest and the most moving atoms. But the theory of idealis­tic philosopher Platon perceived man's spirit as something di­vine and different from body.

However psychological knowledge developed not only in the field of philosophy. Natural science disciplines saved up much information about human body: his anatomy, physiology and biochemist. At the same time, any contradictions became more evident in the area of philosophy and natural science, psy­chological knowledge about a person. Such situation required its solution. The solution of this problem was possible only by determination of psychology as a particular science possessing its methods and facilities.

The most important contribution to this matter was made by W. Wundt who opened the first formal psychological laborato­ry in 1879 in Germany, in Leipzig University.

At the end of the XIX-th century active position of psycho­logical idea resulted in development of various scientific ap­proaches, such as structuralism, fundamentalism, behaviorism and freudism.

As a whole world psychology developed rapidly in differ­ent perspectives. The most present interest became both research­ing person and social adaptation in psychological science.

Modern psychology is a wide sphere of knowledge includ­ing a number of particular disciplines and scientific approach­es. Animal psychology studies specific psyche of animal. Child psychology learns developing of consciousness, activity of growing child, psychic processes, condition of development, etc. Social psychology examines social psychological activity of an individual, his interrelations with other people, groups, psychological combinations (influence of mass media and so on). Pedagogical psychology studies person's development in the process of learning and fostering. There are several branch­es of psychology, analyzing psychological problems of human activity. Labour psychology investigates psychological features of human labour activity and his labour skills.

Engineering psychology investigates interrelations between a person and modern techniques, design creation and exploita­tion of automatic systems.


^ DR. SIGMUND FREUD'S MUSEUM IN LONDON


The text below is taken from the Freud's museum in London, It is a guide for school students (pupils). Does it tell the most important things about Sigmund Freud? Do you think it is good written for children? Is it suitable for adults?


Sigmund Freud was a doctor who lived in Vienna, the capital of Austria, from 1859 until 1938. While he was still at university Freud decided to specialize in neurology, the study and treatment of the brain and the nervous system. In 1885, just before he got married, he obtained a grant to go to Paris to see the famous neurologist Jean Martin Charcot.

Charcot worked with men and women who suffered from hysteria. At first sight they appeared to be blind, or are paralysed in a part of their body, or cannot stop coughing, or have some other physical symptom. But Charcot used hypnosis to show that the real problem was a mental one — under hypnosis he could get them to walk or see. Freud realised from this demonstration the power that the mind could have over the body, and he came back from Paris determined to make a name for himself in this new field of study.

Gradually more and more patients came to si,e Freud, and with each patient he tried to learn something new about his work. He also tried to analyse himself. He realized that some of the ideas that affect people are unconscious — we do not know about them even though they are in our own minds. Freud said that this means that people may do things without knowing the real reason why they are doing it.

He also showed that the unconscious is full of memories and ideas from early childhood, but they are «repressed» and made unconscious because they are things we don't want to think about, or they are forbidden. Freud believed in an idea which is still often heard today, that «the child is father to the adult», and because of his views many adults today think about children in a different way to before.

Freud also showed that sometimes the repressed ideas from childhood could show themselves in dreams or nightmares, and one of his most famous books was called The Interpretation Of Dreams. The first dream Freud interpreted was when he was on holiday at a place called «Bellvue».

Freud says that dreams are about all the things we wish for. But rather than just wishing for something, the dream shows us a picture as if the wish has come true. So instead of thinking «I wish I had an ice-cream», a dream shows you actually eating the ice-cream!

But sometimes you are not allowed to have an ice-cream. Freud said that the wish is often forbidden, so it becomes unconscious and repressed. So part of you wants to make the wish come true and part of you wants to stop the wish. Because of this the wish is disguised, which means that the dream has to be interpreted before it makes sense. That's why Freud called his book The Interpretation of Dreams.

One of the most important things Freud discovered was what he called «The Oedipus complex», The Oedipus story was a Greek myth about a man who killed his father, the king, and married his mother. In the story Oedipus also had to solve the «riddle of the Sphinx», by answering the three questions the Sphinx asked him.

Freud thought that all little boys of 4 or 5 years old were like Oedipus in the story. When they say «I wish I could have mummy all to myself and that daddy was gone away» they are wanting to be just like Oedipus. But this wish cannot be granted — no one can have their mummy all to themselves — so the child has to learn to grow up and accept his disappointment. It was when his own father died that Freud began the study of dreams which led him to discover the Oedipus complex.

Gradually Freud developed the theory of Psychoanalysis and the method of helping people he called free association. With free association Freud simply asked his patients to lie on the couch and say anything that came into their heads. He tried to interpret what they said by relating it to the repressed ideas and wishes in the unconscious. In this way he hoped that things which were unconscious would gradually become conscious, so that the patient would have more control over them and they would not be able to affect him or her so much.


^ Famous psychologists


Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was born May 6, 1856, in a small town Freiberg. His father was a wool merchant (тор­говец шерстью) with a keen mind (с тонким умом) and a good sense of humor. His mother was a lively woman, her husband's second wife and 20 years younger. She was 21 years old when she gave birth to her first son, Sigmund. Sigmund had two older half-brothers and six younger siblings (братьев и сестер). When he was four or five the family moved to Vienna, where he lived most of his life.

A brilliant child, always at the head of his class, he went to medical school, where he became involved in research under the direction of a physiology professor Ernst Brucke. Brucke believed in reductionism: «No other forces than the common physical-chemical ones are active within the organism.»

Freud concentrated on neurophysiology, but only a limited number of positions at the university were available. Brucke helped him to get a grant to study, first with the great psychiatrist Charcot in Paris, then with Bernheim. Both these gentlemen were investigating the use of hypnosis with hysterics.

After spending a short time as a neurologist and director of a children's ward (детское отделение) in Berlin, he came back to Vienna, married his patient fiancee (невеста) Martha Bernays, and set up a practice in neuropsychiatry, with the help of Joseph Breuer.

Freud's books and lectures brought him both fame and ostracism (остракизм, гонения) from the traditional medical community. He collected around him a number of very bright students who became the core (ядро) of the psychoanalytic movement. Unfortunately, Freud rejected people who did not totally agree with him. Some separated from him on friendly terms; others did not, and continued researd to found competing schools of thought.

Freud emigrated to England just before World War II when Vienna became an increasing dangerous place for Jews, especially ones as famous as Freud. Not long afterward, he died of the cancer of the mouth and jaw (челюсть) that he had suffered from for the last 20 years of his life.


^ Famous psychologists


Binet, Alfred (1857-1911), French psychologist known for his achievement in developing a standard intelligence test.

Binet was born on July 11, 1857, in Nice. He was educated at the Sorbonne, where he studied law. However, he decided to continue his studies in medicine and psychology. In 1889, at the Sorbonne, he helped to found the first psychological research laboratory in France. As director of the laboratory, Binet tried to develop experimental techniques to measure intelligence and reasoning ability. In 1895, he founded the first French psychological journal, L'Annйe Psychologique (The Psychological Year), and used it to publish the results of his research studies.

Binet's most important work was in intelligence testing. With his colleague, psychologist Theodore Simon, he developed a test to measure the mental ability of children. The Binet-Simon Scale first appeared in 1905. It was made up of problems designed to measure general intelligence, and items were graded according to age level. The child's score, based on the number of correct answers, showed the child's mental age.

Binet died in Paris on October 18, 1911. His work on intelligence measurement remained important among psychologists in other countries. The Stanford-Binet Scale, an adaptation of Binet's original test, was widely used for many years in the United States, where great importance was paid to intelligence testing.

Biological changes might have more impact due to their so­cial stimulus value, through what we call "mediated effects". These effects relate primarily to the visible physical changes of puberty and to their social and psychological stimulus value. Early maturation in girls might have different effects depend­ing on parental and individual attitudes about pubertal change and on such other factors as the girl's gender identity and the kinds of athletic and other activities she prefers."

She saw a factor for adaptation to biological changes as pri­or to vulnerability (уязвимость), since a child who has devel­oped well up to puberty is probably better able to deal with changes than is one who has difficulties.


^ The text is devoted to outstanding Russian psychologist.


It can hardly be doubted in these days that the Russian scholar Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (1896-1934) is a star of the first magnitude in the sky of modern psychology, a star which shines brighter with the passage of time.

The outstanding American psychologist Jerome Bruner, so chary of praise, said in 1977: «Every psychologist who has stud­ied cognitive processes in the past 25 years, should acknowl­edge the great impact made on him by the works of Lev Vy­gotsky».

In his own country Vygotsky gained fame as an outstanding researcher in psychology as an early as the 1920s. In the West he was very little known then. The only time he went abroad was in 1926. On that occasion he read a paper on the principles of teaching deaf-and-mute children in Russia at an internation­al conference in London.

In 1929 his report prepared together with Alexander Luria another prominent Soviet psychologist and a follower of Vy­gotsky was read at the 9 International Psychological Congress in the USA. Their paper dealt with'a very special subject—the so-called egocentric child speech. Underlying the discussion of this strange phenomenon observed in small children and disap­pearing by the beginning of the school age, was an innovative theory of the mechanism of the work of the human mind.

Another future giant of psychology, the young Swiss schol­ar Jean Piaget, also spoke on the same subject at the same Inter­national Congress. Vygotsky and Piaget discussed the same phenomenon, certain identical facts. Their explanations of these facts were different. Neither the problem of egocentric speech itself nor its different interpretations attracted the attention of the Congress. Most participants were American psychologists and they recognized only one trend as strictly scientific. That trend was behaviorism, which insisted on the study of external behavior that is of the organism's reactions to external stimuli, rejecting any interest in psychical phenomena in the inner men­tal processes.

The behaviorists regarded Ivan Pavlov as the father of that type of psychology, so the main event of the Congress was the speech by the great old man eighty-year-old Pavlov who had traveled across the ocean to be received with thunderous ap­plause. Pavlov was seen as the principal figure in Russian So­viet psychology.

Behaviorism triumphant in the 1920s, later lost its former positions in American psychology, giving way to a trend known as cognitivism. The so-called cognitivism paradigm took shape. Interest in man's information-related activity sharply increased with the advent of the computer era.

The achievement of the scientific and technological revolu­tion led to the appearance of new machines capable of receiv­ing and processing information. Such terms as "memory", "in­tellect" and others became part of technological thinking - a process, which reflected the need for the description of com­puters' specific properties.

It was at that point in time that Vygotsky's work, which cen­tered on explaining the dynamics of physical processes, began to attract considerable attention. The work of Western researchers in the psychology of knowledge including American ones, was and still is influenced by Vygotsky's studies, as indicated by Bruner's evaluation of Vygotsky's impact on them. It can be said that the work of Pavlov gave to the development of world psychology in the first quarter of the 20th century, so did the work of Vygotsky gave to its development in the third quarter of this century.

The work of both Russian scientists reflected the needs of this objective logic and the imminent shifts in psychology: Pav­lov in the objective study of behavior and Vygotsky in the ob­jective study of the psychology of cognition. It is easy to dem­onstrate this view by considering the turning points in their think­ing that led them to new approaches and problem areas. Pavlov discovered conditioned reflexes after gaining world fame by his works on physiology of digestion. It was his works that brought him the Nobel Prize.

Vygotsky had no personal contacts with Pavlov he was trained in the Pavlov school. Vygotsky relied on Pavlov's theo­ries as the foundation of a new psychology, stressing at the same time that one could not judge from the shape of the foundation what sort of building would be erected on it. Vygotsky continued the cause of Pavlov, but he took it in a direction that led beyond the framework of biological explanation of the behav­iour of living beings.

That was indeed a great achievement of Russian science. And science as we know is an inseparable part of culture in which a definite image of man takes shapes.

Vygotsky's world-view underwent a radical change when he became deeply involved in the construction of new socialist culture. "The significance of new practical psychology", he wrote, "for the whole of science could not be overestimated, psychologist might compose a hymn to it". He did not compose hymn to practice. With other enthusiastic reformers of psychol­ogy he became totally absorbed in the everyday hard work of. rebuilding men's consciousness.

His first book, which he began writing in the early 1920s, when he worked as a teacher in the small Byelorussian town of Gomel, was entitled Pedagogical Psychology. He hoped that psychology would enable him to base what work on scientific knowledge and not just on inspiration, intuition and common sense. Vygotsky,s prime goal was a psychological substantia­tion of the system of training and education developing in so­cialist society.

This system required a new approach to the pupil's person­ality, his spiritual potential and laws of intellectual and moral development.

Soviet psychology was born in a situation when the state of world psychology then in the grip of an acute crisis was deter­mined by the confrontation between the older mentalist psy­chology and behaviourist psychology aggressively attacking the former. The concept of consciousness was linked with the sub­jective method which was helpless in the face of the demands of social practice and limited the psyche to the sphere of the individual's immediate experiences.

Vygotsky worked hard on the border of humanly possible one might say. His career in psychology was short. He died before he was 38. Let us imagine that the great psychologists of the 20th century, Pavlov and Freud, have produced then the theory of conditioned reflexes the latter psychoanalysis. But even that which Vygotsky had the time to achieve has remained a chapter in the chronicle of psychology to which the research­er today turns again and again.

Psychologists are concerned with a wide variety of prob­lems. Some are of broad concern: what child-rearing (воспитание детей) methods produce happy and effective adults (взрослый); how can mental illnesses be prevented, and the like. Others are more specific: How can people be persuaded (убеждать) to give up smoking? What is the most effective method for teaching children to read? What area of the brain (мозг) controls speech?

Basically, we are interested in finding out "Why people act as they do?" Any action a person takes can be explained from several different points of view.

Suppose, for example, you walk across the street. This act can be described in terms of the firing of the nerves that activate the muscles that move the legs that transport you across the street. It can also be described without reference to anything within the body; the green light is a stimulus to which you respond by crossing the street. Or your action might be explained in terms of its ultimate purpose; you plan to visit a friend, and crossing the street is one of many acts involved in carrying out the plan.

Just as there are different ways of describing any act of behaviour, there are also different approaches to psychology. I lie analysis of psychological phenomena can be approached from several viewpoints. One approach to the study of human beings attempts to relate their actions to events taking place inside the body, particularly within the brain and the nervous system. This approach specifies the neurobiological processes that underlie behaviour and mental events.

The view that behaviour should be the sole subject-matter of psychology was first advanced by the American psychologist John B.Watson in the early 1900s. He believed that, although man may be at times an active agent in his own development and behaviour, he is still basically what his environment ma­kes him. Therefore, the basic problem is to find out how man behaves or responds as a result of changes or improvements in the environment or stimuli. This view focuses on the obser­vable behaviours of man; that is, those factors that influence him in his environment and his reactions to these forces. This aporoach is often referred to as stimulus-response or S-R psychology. Perhaps the spirit of behaviourism is best seen in Watson's belief that he could take any healthy infant at ran­dom (наугад) and, given his own specified world to bring him up in, bring him up to be anything he wished — doctor, prince, lawyer, criminal and so forth.

Another approach to the study of man is psychoana­lysis, founded by Sigmund Freud. Freud concluded that personality and our degrees of mental health depend on the actions of three major (основной) forces: the id — our unconscious instincts, the ego — our conscious self or intellect — and superego, the conditional reflexes of social rules and internalised values (ценности). The ego, or self, is often under strain to withstand the pleasure forces from the id, pressured (оказывать давление) by the reality forces of the environment and the moral forces of our upbringing (superego).The ego and the superego are the mere tips of the id. It is what is underneath that really counts. For Freudists what is hidden is more important and real than what we feel and do.

The humanistic school view is that man becomes what he makes of himself by his own actions and thoughts. It is concern­ed with the topics having little place in existing theories and systems: e.g. love, creativity ([kriei'tivitij творчество), self-actualization, higher values, humour, affection (привя­занность), courage and so on. These are exactly characteristics that describe our human nature. Humanists believe that man is born basically good, and that conscipus forces are more important than unconscious forces.

Russian psychology was inseparably linked with the de­velopment of research into psycho-physiology in the works of I.Pavlov, V.Bekhterev, L.Orbeli and others. In refuting (опро­вергать) the idealistic and mechanistic influences, Russian scientists asserted in psychology the marxist teaching on acti­vity and its socio-historical foundation, the ideas of Lenin's theory of reflection. The theoretical and experimental study of the basic problems of psychology was carried out by A.Luria, A.Leontyev, B.Teplov, S.Rubinstein and others.

Present-day psychology is a complex and differentiated research system extending throughout general, social, developmental, pedagogical, child, medical, engineering psy­chology.

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