Учебное пособие по английскому языку 3 семестр краснодар 2012 Печатается по решению



НазваниеУчебное пособие по английскому языку 3 семестр краснодар 2012 Печатается по решению
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Finances


In 2009 Interpol's income was €59 million, of which 82% comprised statutory contributions by member countries and 14% income from projects, private foundations and commercial enterprises. From 2004 to 2010 Interpol's external auditors have been the Cour des comptes.

Emblem


The current emblem of Interpol was adopted in 1950 and according to their website has the following symbolism:

  • the globe indicates worldwide activity

  • the olive branches represent peace

  • the sword represents police action

  • the scales signify justice
^

Fugitive investigations


Fugitives pose a serious threat to public safety worldwide. They are mobile (often travelling between countries on stolen or fraudulent travel documents), and opportunistic, frequently financing their continued flight from the law through further criminal activities.

Fugitives also undermine the world’s criminal justice systems. They may have been charged with a violation of the law but not been arrested. They may have been released on bail and then fled to avoid prosecution or perhaps they have escaped from prison. When fugitives flee, cases are not adjudicated, convicted criminals fail to meet their obligations, and crime victims are denied justice.
^

INTERPOL’s role


At INTERPOL, a dedicated Fugitive Investigative Support Unit provides proactive and systematic assistance to member countries and other international entities in order to locate and arrest fugitives who cross international boundaries. Its role is to:

  • Provide investigative support to member countries in ongoing international fugitive investigations;

  • Develop and implement focused initiatives such as  Operation Infra-Red;

  • Coordinate and enhance international cooperation in the field of fugitive investigations;

  • Deliver training and conferences;

  • Collate and disseminate best practice and expert knowledge;

Provide operational support for investigations into  genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes to INTERPOL member countries, UN tribunals and the International Criminal Court.
^

Red notices for wanted persons


One of our most powerful tools in tracking international fugitives is the  Red Notice. This seeks the provisional arrest of a wanted person with a view to extradition and is circulated to police in all our member countries. Red notices contain identification details and judicial information about the wanted person.


Some newspapers articles

Read and translate

05 June 2012
^

Russian paedophile suspect and INTERPOL target arrested in Cambodia


The arrest by Cambodian police of a Russian man wanted in connection with child sex crime offences and the target of an INTERPOL fugitive operation has been welcomed by the world police organization.

Stanislav Molodyakov, also known as Alexander Trofimov, was among 60 suspects wanted in connection with child sex offences targeted by Operation Infra-SEA (International Fugitive Round-Up and Arrest – South East Asia) launched from INTERPOL’s Liaison Office in Bangkok, Thailand earlier this year.

The 45-year-old, who was taken into custody on Monday, is wanted by Russian authorities in connection with abuse of three minors.

The arrest followed close cooperation between INTERPOL’s National Central Bureaus in Phnom Penh, Moscow and its Fugitives Investigative Support unit based at the General Secretariat headquarters in Lyon, France.


^ Тема 20

Europol


Text №1



    1. Some new words to the text:

Boundary граница

Significant важный, значительный, существенный

Contribution вклад, содействие

Target цель

To mean означать

To conduct investigation проводить расследование

Tool орудие, инструмент

Customs таможня

To overcome преодолеть

Request просьба, запрос

Fulfillment выполнение


2. Read and translate the text and answer the following questions:

1. What is Europol?

2. When did it start its work?

3. What is the aim of Europol?

4. What international crimes does Europol fight against?

5. Does Europol have any executive powers? What does it mean?

6. What can you say about structure of this organization?

7. Is there any difference between Europol and Interpol? What are their roles in the fight against organized crime?


Europol

Nowadays, there are no boundaries for organized criminal groups. Because of modern technology and enormous resources, these groups are illegally active worldwide. In fact, organized crime represents a threat to the structure and values of our democratic systems affecting European citizens’ security and freedom.

Europol is the European Union law enforcement organization that handles criminal intelligence. Its aim is to improve the effectiveness and cooperation between the competent authorities of the Member States in preventing and combating such international organised crimes as: illicit drug trafficking; weapons smuggling; illicit immigration network; terrorism, forgery of money (counterfeiting of the Euro) and other means of payment; trafficking in human beings including child pornography; illicit vehicle trafficking; money-laundering. In addition, other main priorities for Europol include crimes against persons, financial crime, computer crime and cyber crime. In short, the mission of Europol is to make a significant contribution to the European Union’s law enforcement action against crime with an emphasis on targeting criminal organizations.

Europol (the name is a contraction of European Police Office) is the European Union’s criminal intelligence agency. The agency started limited operations on January 3, 1994, as the Europol Drugs Unit (EDU). In 1998 the Europol Convection was ratified by all the member states and came into force in October. Europol became fully operational on July 1, 1999.

It is a support service for the law enforcement agencies of the EU member states. Europol has no executive powers. This means that Europol officials are not entitled to conduct investigations in the member states or to arrest suspects. In providing support, Europol with its tools – information exchange, intelligence analysis, expertise and training – can contribute to the executive measures carried out by the relevant national authorities.

Europol is a multi – disciplinary agency, comprising not only regular police officers but staff members from the member states’ law enforcement agencies: customs, immigration services, border and financial police, etc. Europol helps to overcome the language barriers in international police cooperation. Any law enforcement officer from a member state can address a request to their Europol National Unit (ENU) in her / his mother tongue and receive the answer back in this language.

Three different levels of cooperation are possible: the first one is technical cooperation. The next step is strategic cooperation aimed at exchanging general trends in organized crime and how to fight it. The top level of cooperation includes the exchange of personal data and requires the fulfillment of Europol’s standards in the field of data protection and data security.


^ What is the difference between Europol and Interpol?

There are various possibilities for international law enforcement cooperation. Interpol and Europol are two of them. Interpol is an excellent network of police agencies of countries worldwide, whereas Europol mainly supports the fight against organized crime and there is no competition between these organizations. In fact a cooperation agreement was signed between the two organizations. In fact a cooperation agreement was signed between the two organizations to help strengthen international law enforcement cooperation.


^ 3. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions and translate:

- organized criminal groups

- citizens’ security

- modern technology and enormous resources

- to represent a threat

- to handle criminal intelligence

- to make a significant contribution

- a multi-disciplinary agency

- regular police officers

- to overcome the language barriers

- international police cooperation

- to exchange information

- border police

- to conduct investigation

- top level

- data security


^ 4. Find in the text above the names of following crimes:

- незаконный оборот наркотиков

- отмывание денег

- незаконная торговля транспортными средствами

- незаконная миграция

- преступления против личности

- торговля людьми

- детская порнография

- подделка денег (фальшивомонетчество)

- контрабанда оружием

- компьютерная преступность

- кибер преступления.


^ 5. Circle the odd ones out:

1. assassin drug dealer hit man murderer

2. con man robber burglar pickpocket


3. bribe smuggle charge mug

4. proof alibi prison fingerprint

5. shoplifter hijacker stalker murder

6. stole deceived damaged questioned

7. guilty theft fraud manslaughter


^ 6. Make the sentences from the following words:

    1. Europol, that, organization, the, Union, is, handles, European, intelligence, law, enforcement, criminal.

    2. Boundaries, no, nowadays, criminal, for, groups, organized, there are.

    3. Powers, Europol, executive, has, no.

4. Police, barriers, the language, in, cooperation, international, to

overcome, Europol, helps.

5. Europol, is, of, the mission, crime, and, serious, combat, international, and, organized, terrorism.


^ 7. Mark the statements T (true) or А (false) using the text A and B:

1. Europol is the European Union law enforcement organization that handles criminal intelligence.

2. The main priorities for Europol include crimes against persons, financial crimes and cyber crimes.

3. Europol is a multi-disciplinary agency, comprising regular police officers and staff members from the various law enforcement agencies of the member states.

4. There are no differences between Interpol and Europol.

5. Europol helps to overcome the language barriers in international police cooperation.


^ 8. Read and translate the following dialogue.

John: Hallo, Peter! How are you?

Peter: Hi, John! I haven’t seen you for ages!

John: Are you still working at the Europol department?

Peter: You are right. I’m a Special Agent.

John: Sounds great! And what does this organization deal with?

Peter: Europol’s aim is to improve the effectiveness and cooperation between the competent authorities of the member states. The workers of Europol are doing their best to prevent and combat international organized crimes such as illicit drug trafficking, weapons smuggling, human trafficking and so on.

John: Oh, I see. You have such a challenging job!

Peter: Really. It also requires patience, honesty, intelligence and courage.

John: That’s true. It was nice to meet you. See you.

Peter: So long!


^ 9. Make up your own dialogues and reproduce it.


10. Imagine that you are a police officer from Russia that visit an international seminar in Dallas on the problem of terrorism. Write a report about this problem and international organizations dealing with it.


  1. Retell the text.


Text №2

Translate the text and then answer the following questions:

  1. What is organized crime?

  2. What country has the biggest gangs?

  3. What are Japanese gangsters called?

  4. What do you know about AI Capone?

  5. What is Mafia?

  6. What criminal activities is the Mafia involved in?



Organized Crime

Organized Crime is the term used to describe illegal operations which are run like a big business. Crimes like this are carried out by criminals who work in gangs. There are gangs in every major country of the world. Many of the biggest gangs are in the USA. Some modern gangsters, like the Mafia, are involved in the illegal drugs trade. Japanese gangsters, called yakuza (meaning “good for nothing”), are also highly organized and very powerful.

Probably the most famous time for gangsters was the Prohibition (запрещение продажи спиртных напитков, сухой закон) period in the USA. Between 1920 and 1933 alcoholic drinks were banned and gangs grew rich running illegal drinking dens. The best known prohibition gangster was AI Capone, who dominated organized crime in Chicago from 1925 to 1931.

The Mafia is secret society which began in Sicily long ago. In the 20 century it spread to mainland Italy and to the USA, where many Italian Immigrants had settled. The mafia is involved in many criminal activities, including obtaining money from people using threats or force, selling illegal drugs, running illegal gambling operations, kidnapping and various acts of terrorism.

The Mafia is organized into a network of «families». The Italian and US governments have put many suspected Mafia members on trial, but it is difficult to obtain evidence against them because Mafia members are sworn to secrecy. In recent years a number of senior Mafia members have agreed to give evidence against their former colleagues, resulting in several highly publicized trials.


^ Supplementary reading

07 June 2012

Crime network behind hundreds of burglaries dismantled by French police

Operation supported by INTERPOL and Europol

An operation led by French law enforcement, and supported by INTERPOL and Europol, targeting a crime network of Georgian and Armenian nationals believed to be linked to more than 300 burglaries has resulted in the arrest of 21 individuals and the recovery of a substantial amount of gold and jewellery.

The network - structured over several levels, with burglars, team leaders and coordinated by at least one ‘thief-in-law,’ a criminal of high-ranking within the network who acts as a controller and regulator - is suspected of a series of residential and commercial thefts around Limoges, the north of France and Belgium, with the stolen goods sent to Belgium for selling on.

The investigation, led by France’s Central Office for Combating Itinerant Delinquency and the Gendarmerie of Limoges, was supported from the early stages by Europol specialists who facilitated the exchange of criminal intelligence, delivered analytical reports and supported the operation on the spot with a mobile office.

During the operational phase on June 4, INTERPOL provided onsite support assisting the identification of those arrested through on-site fingerprint scanning, provision of access to INTERPOL’s global databases and message exchange with its National Central Bureaus.

The number of arrests and seizures are provisional and likely to increase in the next few days as the operation continues.


^ Тема 21

Международное сотрудничество полицейских

        1. Some new words to the text:

Growth рост, увеличение

Increasingly все более, все больше и больше

Sophisticated сложный, изощренный

Rapid быстрый, скорый

Opportunity возможность

To expand расширять(ся), увеличивать (ся)

Enormous огромный, громадный

Alarm тревога

Violate нарушать

Pressure давление

Widespread широко распространенный

Offence правонарушение, преступление

Money laundering отмывание денег

Theft воровство, кража

Illicit незаконный

Arms trade торговля оружием

Hijacking похищение, угон (транспортного средства)

Fraud обман, мошенничество

Insurance страхование, страховка

Trade торговля

Drug trafficking торговля наркотиками

Sham теневой, поддельный

Penetrate внедряться, проникать

Currency валюта, деньги

Gain прибыль, нажива, выгода

To conceal скрывать, утаивать

To escape бежать, уходить

Trace выслеживать, следить

Subsequent последующий, следующий

^ 2. Read and translate the following text:

International police cooperation in combating cross-border crime

The growth in cross-border crime is going on in many countries today. The development of increasingly sophisticated facilities for rapid travel has made it easier for criminals to move around the world. At the same time, the complex structures of modern societies and the constant growth of international exchanges provide more and more opportunities for international criminal activity, which has expanded enormously now and reached alarming proportions. Individuals and companies are being subjected to increasing pressure from criminals, leading to widespread feelings of insecurity.

The term «international crime», although in common use, does not necessarily refer to specific types of offence defined in law. When criminal acts, deals and schemes violate the laws of more than one country, they are said to be cross-border, transnational or international crimes.

The UN has classified all transnational crimes into 17 groups: money laundering terrorism; theft of art works and cultural objects; theft of intellectual property; illicit arms trade; hijacking of planes; piracy; hijacking on highways; fraud in insurance; computer-related crime; ecological crime; trade in humans; trade in human organs; drug trafficking; sham bankruptcy; penetrating legal business; corruption and bribing public figures, party leaders and elected officials.

Some offences are covered by international conventions, for instance, currency counterfeiting (1929 Convention), traffic in human beings and the exploitation of prostitution (1949 Convention), and drug trafficking (1988 Convention).

Other offences, however, can be classified as «international» because of the behaviour of the offenders. For instance, preparations for committing an offence may be made in one country while the actual offence is committed in one or more countries. To make another example, similar offences may be committed one after the other in several different countries. Finally, an offender may escape across a border after committing his offence, he may transfer his illicit gains abroad or he may conceal objects or documents used to commit the offence in another country.

Tracing and arresting such offenders may prove extremely difficult; problems can arise in connection with exchanging information, identification, international investigations and subsequent extradition. Because of these problems, police services in different countries must work together if they are to combat international crime successfully.


^ 3. Translate the following words and word-combinations:

- cross-border crime

- modern society

- sophisticated facilities

- international criminal activity

- in common use

- specific type of offence

- illicit gain

- feeling of insecurity

- currency counterfeiting

- tracing

- fraud in insurance

- identification

- subsequent extradition.


4. ^ Find in the text above the names of following crimes:

- кража интеллектуальной собственности

- отмывание денег

- экологические преступления

- торговля людьми

- теневое банкротство

- торговля человеческими органами

- страховые мошенничества

- подделка денег (фальшивомонетчество)

- незаконная торговля оружием

- компьютерная преступность

- коррупция

- угон воздушного средства

- подкуп.


5^ Make up word combinations:

1) cross-border a) exchanges

2) sophisticated b) extradition

3) international c) proportion

4) criminal d) crime

5) alarming e) laundering

6) money f) activity

7) currency g) facilities

8) subsequent h) counterfeiting

^ 6. Find the words with an opposite meaning in the text above:

1) law-abiding citizen

2) easy

3) decreasing

4) security

5) obey

6) local

7) legal


7 Read the definitions and name the corresponding word from the bracket:

(Illicit, to launder, terrorism, hostage, ransom, to cooperate, border, to facilitate)

    1. to transfer illegal or stolen money usually by a complex process to avoid detection

    2. against law

3. the use of violence in order to achieve political aims

4. an amount of money that someone asks for in exchange for a person

who they are keeping as a prisoner

5. the official line that separates two countries or regions

6. a person who is the prisoner of someone who threatens to kill them if

they do not get what they want

7. to make it possible or easier for something to happen

8. to work with other people in order to achieve something


^ 8. Complete the following sentences according to the text:

1. The growth in cross-border crime …

2. The constant growth of international …

3. The term international crime does not …

4. The UN has classified …

5. Other offences, however, can be classified …

6. Police services in different countries must work …


^ 9. Answer the following questions, then retell the text.

1. What developments made it easier for criminals to move around the world?

2. Who are being subjected to increasing pressure from criminals?

3. Does the term «international crime» refer only to specific types of offence defined in law?

4. What does the term «transnational crime» mean?

5. How many groups of transnational crimes can you name according to UN’s classification?

6. What offences are covered by international conventions?

7. Is tracing and arresting international criminals an easy task?

8. Why must police services in different countries work together?


Additional exercise to the topic

1. Read, translate and retell the text:

Prison for cannabis smugglers

The skipper and crew of a yacht were jailed for trying to smuggle cannabis worth 4.5 pounds million into Britain. The skipper of the yacht Rosy, was sentenced to ten years after admitting illegally importing cannabis.

Truro Crown Court had been told that the yacht was tracked through French and Spanish waters until it suffered engine trouble ten miles off Falmouth, Cornwall. When the boat called for help a Customs launch offered it a tow to Falmouth, where one-and-a-half tons of Moroccan cannabis was found.

(From the Guardian)

2^ . Find the English equivalents for the following words:

- контрабандист

- экипаж яхты

- посадить в тюрьму

- провозить коноплю контрабандой

- приговорить к

- признать незаконный импорт

- страдать

- звать на помощь

- таможня


^ Supplementary reading


Text №1

1. Read and translate the text with the help of dictionary


Organization of the French Police

The French Police consists of two highly centralized forces, the National Police and the National Gendarmerie. There is a further independent local force called the Municipal Police. Relations between the two major forces are often described as strained. The Municipal police force operates in theory alongside the National police and the National Gendarmerie. All the French police are armed.

The National Police is considerably larger then the Gendarmerie with some 116,300 officers and is responsible to the Ministry of the Interior. In addition to the uniformed and plain clothes police officers, there are about 10,000 civil support staff working for the National Police.

The National Police has executive and administrative functions which are split between the various units and services, for example: suppression of public disorder, road and motorway patrols, intelligence service, border and air control service, VIP security service. Drugs, vice and forensic work are often covered by specialist squads and there is also an anti-terrorist unit.

Within the National Police there are a few divisions for active policing:

  • The Urban Police operates in the 477 big towns. Each district is controlled by a Commissar and consists of uniformed officers and a plain clothes detective and administration division. The tasks of the Urban Police division are to maintain law and order, public safety, security and salubrity, and traffic control.

  • The Judicial Police deal with criminal, financial and economic cases.

  • The Political Police of approximately 4,000 officers collect and collate information on individuals or groups who are regarded as constituting a danger to the state. Its plain officers are empowered to infiltrate organizations, collect information, tap telephones and open mail, subject to warrants.

  • The State Security Service is concerned with the secret activities of foreign states operating in France.

  • ^ The Air and Frontier Police is responsible for movement of people across French borders and through airports. It works closely with the Customs Service which has responsibility for supervision of the movement of goods across the frontiers.

There are also other divisions of the National Police including para-military riot police and drug squad.

The National Gendarmerie is a military force under the control of the Ministry of Defence.


^ Text №2

1.Read and translate the text with the help of dictionary


Organization of the Italian Police

There are four separate police systems in Italy: the Carabinieri, the State police, the treasury police and the local community police.

In addition there are the Corps of Prison Warders and the Corps of Foresters. The latter is responsible for the protection of forestry and environment. In total there are some 302 police officers, giving one officer for every 191 people.

The Italian police all come under the authority of the Minister of the Interior who coordinates the activities of law enforcement agencies. The Minister is responsible for the maintenance of public order and safety, and the services of the Public Security Department are employed to enforce this authority. This department in turn is sub-divided into various departments and agencies headed by the Chief of the Italian Police.


^ Text №3


1.Read and translate the text with the help of dictionary


What are crimes?

It is very important to know which acts are criminal.

Offences against society

The most fundamental characteristic of a crime is that it is a punishable offense against society. Consequently, when a crime occurs, society, acting through such employees as the police and prosecutors, attempts to identify, arrest, prosecute, and punish the criminal. These measures are designed to protect society rather than to aid the victim of the crime. Victims of almost all crimes can sue identified criminals for civil damages, but seldom do because it is costly and difficult to collect from such defendants.


Elements of crimes

Before anyone can be convicted of a crime, three elements usually must be proved at the trial. They are:

    1. a duty to do or not to do a certain thing;

    2. a violation of the duty, and

    3. criminal intent.

Duty. The duty to do or not to do a certain thing usually is described by statutes which prohibit certain conduct. Generally only conduct that is serious – involving violence or theft property – is classified as an offense against society and therefore criminal.

Violation of the duty. The breach of duty must also be proved in a criminal trial. This is the specific conduct by the defendant, which violates the duty. For example, battery is always a crime. Criminal battery is often defined in statutes as «the intentional causing of corporal harm». Corporal harm means bodily harm. A breach of this duty could be established in a trial by the testimony of witness who swore that she saw the defendant deliberately punch the victim.

^ Criminal intent. The third element, criminal intent, must be proved in most cases. Criminal intent generally means that the defendant intended to commit the act and intended to do evil.

A few crimes do not require criminal intent. These are generally less serious crimes, for which a jail sentence is very unlikely. Traffic offenses fall within this classification. You may not have intended to speed or have intended evil but you have still committed this crime.

Today, statutes of most states fix the age of criminal liability at 18, but the figure ranges from 16 to 19. Statutes often provide that minors as young as 13 or 16 may be tried and punished as adults if they are accused of serious crimes such as murder. Generally, however, what is a crime for adults is juvenile delinquency for minors.

Ignorance or mistake is generally no excuse for violating a law. A person is presumed to know what the law is. To have criminal intent, one must have sufficient mental capacity at the time one commits a crime to know the difference between right and wrong and to be capable of deciding what to do. Accordingly, insane persons are not held liable for their criminal acts.

Normally neither voluntary intoxication nor drug abuse is a good defense against a criminal charge.


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