Учебное пособие по английскому языку 3 семестр краснодар 2012 Печатается по решению



НазваниеУчебное пособие по английскому языку 3 семестр краснодар 2012 Печатается по решению
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^

History of FBI


In 1886, the Supreme Court, in Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company v. Illinois, found that the states had no power to regulate interstate commerce. The resulting Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 created a Federal responsibility for interstate law enforcement. The Justice Department made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the turn of the century, when Attorney General Charles Joseph Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the Secret Service, for investigators. But the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by Justice, passing a law to that effect in 1908. So the Attorney General moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation (BOI or BI), complete with its own staff of special agents. The Secret Service provided the Department of Justice 12 Special Agents and these agents became the first Agents in the new BOI. Thus, the first FBI agents were actually Secret Service agents. Its jurisdiction derived from the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. The FBI grew out of this force of special agents created on July 26, 1908 during the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. The first Chief (the title has since been changed to Director) was Stanley W. Finch. Its first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act," or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, it was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation. The following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation (DOI) before finally becoming an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935. In the same year, its name was officially changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI.
^

J. Edgar Hoover as director


The Director of the BOI, J. Edgar Hoover, was an FBI Director who served from 1924–1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, and FBI. He was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which officially opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover had substantial involvement in most major cases and projects which the FBI handled during his tenure. After Hoover's death, Congress passed legislation limiting the tenure of future FBI Directors to a maximum of ten years.

During the "War on Crime" of the 1930s, FBI agents apprehended or killed a number of notorious criminals who carried out kidnappings, robberies, and murders throughout the nation, including John Dillinger, "Baby Face" Nelson, Kate "Ma" Barker, Alvin "Creepy" Karpis, and George "Machine Gun" Kelly.

Other activities of its early decades included a decisive role in reducing the scope and influence of the Ku Klux Klan. Additionally, through the work of Edwin Atherton, the FBI claimed success in apprehending an entire army of Mexican neo-revolutionaries along the California border in the 1920s.

Hoover began using wiretapping in the 1920s during Prohibition to arrest bootleggers. A 1927 case in which a bootlegger was caught through telephone tapping went to the United States Supreme Court, which ruled that the FBI could use wiretaps in its investigations and did not violate the Fourth Amendment as unlawful search and seizure as long as the FBI did not break in to a person's home to complete the tapping. After Prohibition's repeal, Congress passed the Communications Act of 1934, which outlawed non-consensual phone tapping, but allowed bugging. In another Supreme Court case, the court ruled in 1939 that due to the 1934 law, evidence the FBI obtained by phone tapping was inadmissible in court. A 1967 Supreme Court decision overturned the 1927 case allowing bugging, after which Congress passed the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, allowing public authorities to tap telephones during investigations, as long as they obtain a warrant beforehand.


^ Работа полиции Великобритании

Тема 17

Столичная полиция Лондона

The UK police ranks:

Chief Constable – CC – главный констебль

Deputy Chief Constable – DCC – заместитель главного констебля

Assistant Chief Constable and Commander – ACC – помощник главного констебля и коммандер

Chief Superintendent – C/Supt – главный суперинтендант

Detective Chief Superintendent – детектив главный суперинтендант

Superintendent – Supt – суперинтендант

(Detective-Superintendent) – D/Supt – детектив суперинтендант

Chief Inspector – HMCIC или CI – главный инспектор Её Величества

Detective Chief Inspector – DCI – детектив главный инспектор

Inspector – HMI(C) – инспектор полиции Её Величества

Detective Inspector – DI – детектив инспектор

Sergeant – сержант

Detective Sergeant – DS – детектив сержант

Police Sergeant – PS – полицейский сержант

Constable – констебль

Detective Constable – DC – детектив констебль

Police Constable – PC – полицейский констебль

Woman Police Constable – WPC – женщина-констебль

Commissioner – комиссар

Deputy Commissioner – заместитель комиссара

Deputy Assistant Commissioner – DAC – заместитель

помощника комиссара


Text №1


1. Read the text and give a brief summary of the text in Russian. The following words will help you understand the text:

  1. to create - создавать

  2. commissioner - комиссар

  3. to split – разбивать, разделять

  4. to mount – 1) подниматься, 2) садиться на лошадь

  5. mounted - конный

  6. grade - степень

  7. superintendent – 1) старший полицейский офицер, 2) руководитель

  8. apprehension - задержание

  9. liberty - свобода

  10. tribute – дань, должное


The Metropolitan Police Force of London

The Metropolitan Police Force was created in 1829 by an Act of Parliament. It is the largest Police Force in Britain, policing an area of 742 square miles of Greater London.

The Force is controlled by the^ Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis under the general directions of the Home Secretary.

The Metropolitan Police District is divided into four Districts. Each District comprises five or six Divisions. The twenty three Divisions are divided into sub-Divisions, and a sub-Division is split into sectional police stations under the control of a Station Officer, who is usually a Sergeant.

The Metropolitan Police is divided into two main branches – the ^ Criminal Investigation Department (the CID), and the uniformed branch. There are a number of specialist branches in the Force such as the Mounted Branch, the Dog Branch, the River Police, the Women police and others.

The main goals of policing include the prevention of crime and disorder, the preservation of the peace, the apprehension of offenders, the recovery of lost or stolen property, and the protection of life, property, and personal liberties.

The popular nickname of the London policeman «bobby» is a tribute to Sir Robert Peel, whose Christian name Bob attached itself to members of the force. Sir Robert Peel reorganized the London police in 1829.


^ 2. Write out the corresponding adjectives from the text:

Metropolis _________________

Person ____________________

Section ____________________

Crime ____________________

To mount _________________

To lose __________________.


^ 3. Match the synonyms:

Act security

Branch freedom

Goal main

Protection affiliation

Liberty bill

Principal purpose

Special specialized


4. Open the brackets using the verbs in correct forms:

  1. The Metropolitan Police Force of London (to create) in 1829.

  2. It (to control) by the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis.

  3. The Metropolitan Police District (to divide) into four Districts.

  4. The 23 Divisions (to divide) into sub-divisions.

  5. The sub-Divisions (to split) into sectional police stations.

6. The Metropolitan Police (to associate) with the name of Sir Robert Peel.


^ 5. Insert correct articles:

1. … Metropolitan Police is … largest police force in Britain.

2. They police … area of more than 700 square miles.

3. … land mile is equal to 1,609 kilometres.

4. … nautical mile is equal to 1,852 kilometres.

5. … main goals of policing include … prevention of … crime and disorders, and … preservation of peace.

6. Their goals are also … apprehension of offenders, … recovery of lost or stolen property, and … protection of life, property, and personal liberties.


^ 6. Check if you remember:

  1. Who supervises and directs the Metropolitan Police?

  2. Who heads sectional police stations?

  3. How many main branches of the Metropolitan Police Force are there?

  4. What specialist branches of police are there in Britain?




  1. Complete these sentences:

  1. The letters CID stand for _________ .

  2. The popular nickname of the London policeman is _________.

  3. This word originated from Sir _____________.

  4. It was he who reorganized the London police in _________.

  5. The full name of the police of London is ____________.



Text №2

^ 1. Some new words to the text:

Law and order – правопорядок, закон и порядок

Beat – район, дозор, обход

Distinctive markings – отличительные особенности, приметы

Fluorescent – флуоресцентный, светящийся

Stripe - полоса

Founder - основатель

Nickname - прозвище

Authority – власть, полномочие

County - графство

Councilor – член совета, советник

To co-operate – сотрудничать, содействовать, объединяться

To give assistance – оказывать содействие, оказывать помощь

To carry – носить, иметь при себе

Gun – орудие, огнестрельное оружие

Robbery – грабеж

To assign – назначать, поручать

To guard - охранять

Circumstance - обстоятельство

Permission - разрешение

To gain – получать, приобретать

To make up – составлять, комплектовать

Voluntarily - добровольно

Traffic warden – инспектор дорожного движения

To obey – выполнять, соблюдать

Speeding – превышение скорости

To safeguard - охранять

Property – собственность, имущество


^ 2. Read and translate the text:


The British Police

The British police officer is a well-known figure to anyone who has visited Britain or who has seen British films. Policemen are to be seen in towns and cities keeping law and order, either walking in pairs down the streets («walking the beat») or driving specially marked police cars. Once known as «panda cars» because of their distinctive markings, these are now often jokingly referred to as «jam sandwiches» because of the pink fluorescent stripe running horizontally around the bodywork. In the past, policemen were often known as «bobbies» after Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the police force. Nowadays, common nicknames include «the cops», «the fuzz», «the pigs», and «the Old Bill» (particularly in London). Few people realize, however, that the police in Britain are organized very differently from many other countries.

Most countries, for example, have a national police force which is controlled by central Government. Britain has no national police force, although police policy is governed by the central Government’s Home Office. Instead, there is a separate police force for each of 52 areas into which the country is divided. Each has a police authority – a committee of local county councillors and magistrates.

The forces co-operate with each other, but it is unusual for members of one force to operate in another’s area unless they are asked to give assistance. This happens when there has been a very serious crime. A Chief Constable (the most senior police officer of a force) may sometimes ask for the assistance of London’s police force, based at New Scotland Yard – known simply as «the Yard».

In most countries the police carry guns. In Britain, however, this is extremely unusual. Policemen do not, as a rule, carry firearms in their day-to-day work, though certain specialist units are trained to do so and can be called upon to help the regular police force in situations where firearms are involved, e.g. terrorist incidents, armed robberies, etc. The only policemen who routinely carry weapons are those assigned to guard politicians and diplomats, or special officers who patrol airports.

In certain circumstances specially trained police officers can be armed, but only with the signed permission of a magistrate.

All members of police must have gained a certain level of academic qualifications at school and undergone a period of intensive training. Like in the army, there are a number of ranks: after the Chief Constable comes the Assistant Chief Constable, Chief Superintendent, Chief Inspector, Inspector, Sergeant and Constable. There are about 150,000 policemen in Britain, or one officer for every 380 people in the population. Women make up about 10 per cent of the police force. The police are helped by a number of Special Constables – members of the public who work for the police voluntarily for a few hours a week.

Each police force has its own Criminal Investigation Department (CID). Members of CIDs are detectives, and they do not wear uniforms. The other uniformed people you see in British towns are traffic wardens. Their job is to make sure that drivers obey the parking regulations. They have no other powers – it is the police who are responsible for controlling offences like speeding, careless driving and drunken driving.

The duties of the police are varied, ranging from assisting at accidents to safeguarding public order and dealing with lost property. One of their main functions is, of course, apprehending criminals and would-be criminals.

^ 3. Review vocabulary for the text by reading and translating the following

word-combinations:

Specially marked police cars; separate police force; to co-operate with each other; to give assistance; to ask for assistance; to carry guns; terrorist incidents; to guard politicians; regular police force; specially trained police officer; with the signed permission; a certain level of academic qualifications; for a few hours a week; to obey the parking regulations; to control offences; to safeguard public order; to deal with lost property; to apprehend criminals.


^ 4. Read and translate into Russian the synonyms given below

Gun – weapon

Crime – offence

Criminal – offender

Assistance – help

Fight – combat, struggle

Safeguard – security

Job – work

Deal with – handle

Involve – include

Public order – law and order


^ 5. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

  • поддерживают правопорядок

  • основатель полиции

  • национальная полиция

  • советники графств и мировые судьи

  • вооруженный грабеж

  • охранять политиков и дипломатов

  • как и в армии / подобно армии

  • работают добровольно несколько часов в неделю

  • осуществлять контроль за правонарушениями

  • превышение скорости

  • вождение автомобиля в пьяном виде

  • охранять общественный порядок

  • пропавшее имущество.


^ 6. Explain the common nicknames of the British policemen:

«Bobbies», «the cops», «the fuzz», «the pigs», «the Old Bill».

7. Choose and use the right words in the following sentences:

Offence offender

Offensive offended

1. Sometimes it is very difficult to find the suspect for an … immediately.

2. He was charged with a serious …

3. It was a very serious … against the law.

4. He … against the law.

5. First … are people found guilty for the first time.

6. Old … are people who have often been found guilty.

7. These are … weapons.


^ 8. Confirm or deny the statements using the following phrases:

Quite so…

Right you are…

I quite agree with you here …

Or:

I am afraid not…

I don’t agree with you…

I am afraid you are wrong

Excuse me but…

On the contrary…

Not quite so…


  1. Great Britain has a national police force which is controlled by central Government.

  2. British policemen are to be seen in towns and cities keeping law and order, either walking in pairs down the streets or driving specially marked police cars.

  3. Everybody realize that the police in Britain are organized very differently from many other countries.

  4. Each British police force has a police authority – a committee of local county councillors and magistrates.

  5. The police forces co-operate with each other and it is usual for members of one force to operate in another’s area.

  6. Usually British policemen carry firearms in their day-to-day work.

  7. All members of the police must have gained a certain level of academic qualifications at school and undergone a period of intensive training.

  8. The police are helped by a number of Special Constables – members of Criminal Investigation Department (CID) and Economic Crimes Investigation Department (ECID).

  9. The main responsibility of the traffic wardens is to locate and apprehend criminals.


^ 9. Answer the following questions:

1. Who was the founder of the British police?

  1. What does «walking the beat» mean?

  2. Why are British police cars called «jam-sandwich» cars in colloquial speech?

  3. Is there a single police force, organized by central government?

  4. What is the major difference in police organization between Britain and some other countries?

  5. When do British police forces co-operate with each other?

  6. What is the name of London’s police headquarters?

  7. In what situations can policemen carry arms?

  8. What are the ranks of policemen?

  9. What is the job of CID officers?

  10. What are the duties of traffic wardens?

  11. What is Scotland Yard and what does it do?


^ 10. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the appropriate words and expressions from the previous text:

In Britain different areas have different _____ ____. For instance, the Metropolitan police operate in London, but there are different police forces in the counties outside London.

The top man in each police force is ____ ____. He is appointed by the local Watch Committee which is a _____ ____ of the local government. The Watch Committee can dismiss him, too, if the central government agrees. The Chief Constable appoints all the _____ below him in his force.

Things are slightly different in London. The top man is known as the Metropolitan Police Commissioner and his appointment is arranged through the central government.

British police are normally not _____. In special cases, when their work becomes dangerous, they can be given______ however.

As is well known, the ____ of the British policeman is blue, with a tall helmet. These days, though, you can see a different uniform in the streets. This is the uniform with the yellow hatband worn by ______ _____. Their job is simply to control traffic and _____ _____.

The most famous name connected with the British police is ______ _____. It is the headquarters of the London police force. Besides dealing with local police matters, the London police also help all over England and Wales with difficult crimes. They do this at the request of the local police.


^ 11. Render the following text into English using the information and vocabulary from the text above:

В Великобритании существует 52 полицейских подразделения: 43 в Англии и Уэльсе, 8 в Шотландии и 1 в Северной Ирландии. Столичная полиция и полиция лондонского Сити отвечают за охрану общественного порядка в Лондоне. Кроме того, специальное подразделение транспортной полиции патрулирует железнодорожную сеть, а также метро Лондона.

Полицейская служба финансируется центральным правительством и местными властями. Каждое полицейское подразделение имеет своих специальных констеблей-добровольцев, которые работают в полиции в свободное время и помогают кадровым офицерам полиции, причем их работа не оплачивается. Они являются своеобразным связующим звеном между полицией и населением.

Полицейские подразделения Англии и Уэллса подведомственны органам местной полиции. Столичная полиция находится в подчинении у Министра внутренних дел. Подразделения в областях возглавляют констебли. Они несут ответственность за свою работу перед центральными полицейскими органами, которые назначают начальника полиции и его помощника. Комиссар Столичной полиции и его непосредственные подчиненные назначаются по рекомендации министра внутренних дел.


^ 12. Choose the correct variant to complete the sentences

1. There are _______ police forces organized on a local basis in the UK

a) 52

b) 43

c) 7

2. The police forces cooperate with each other _______

a) when there has been a very serious crime

b) regularly

c) when they control riots

3. The most senior police officer of a force is ______

a) Chief Constable

b) Chief Inspector

c) Chief Superintendant

4. The British police generally _____

a) carry guns

b) carry clubs and gas pistols

c) do not carry firearms

5. _______ has the main responsibility for the police force

a) the Queen

b) the Home Officer

c) the Prime Minister

6. There are about _______ policemen in Great Britain.

a) 1 500 000

b) 150 000

c) 15 000

7. The uniformed people you see in British towns are ____

a) traffic wardens

b) detectives

c) superintendants.

^ 13. Retell the text.


Additional exercises to the topic «The work of British police»

Complete the following texts with the words and phrases from the bracket:

A. (Walkie-talkie, plain clothes, detective, uniform, policeman, police force, rank, join)

Alan is now old enough and tall enough to ______ the______ ______. At first, of course, he’ll be an ordinary ______ of the lowest ______. He’ll wear a _____ and go out in the streets keeping in touch with the police station with his ______ ______. Then he’d like to be a ______ in ______ ______ investigating serious crimes.


B. (rate, uniformed, detectives, duties, riot, truncheons, firearms, investigation, wardens, control, violence, authorities)

Police ____ cover a wide range of activities, from traffic ____ to more specialized departments such as river police. Each independent force has a ____ branch and a Criminal ____ Department with ____ in plain clothes. In addition, the police ____ in England and Wales employ 40,000 civilians and nearly 5,000 traffic ____ .

Britain has relatively few police ____ approximately one policeman for every 400 people ___ and traditionally they are armed only with ___ expert in special circumstances. However, recent years have seen some major changes in police policy in response to industrial disputes and inner city ___ in Great Britain. In general, there has been an increase in the number of special units trained in crowd and ____ control and in the use of ____, a controversial area for the British police. The number of police has been risen along with the crime ___.


C. (order, law, aim, control, prevention, central, keep order, legal)

A police force is an organization of men and women who help to keep __ and enforce the __ in a state or country.

There are two forms of police force. One is a national police under the direct ___ of the ___ government. It is often organized like an army and its main aim is to ___. In most English-speaking countries the police are non-military groups. Such a police force is locally organized and its main ___ is crime ___. It hands over criminals to be dealt with by other branches of the ___ system.


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