Учебное пособие по английскому языку краснодар 2012 Печатается по решению



НазваниеУчебное пособие по английскому языку краснодар 2012 Печатается по решению
страница8/9
Дата02.04.2013
Размер1.02 Mb.
ТипУчебное пособие
источник
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9








Present


have been read

has




Future




shall have been read

will








Past


Had been read


Например, возьмем за основу глагол interrupt.

He is always interrupted during his speech. - Его всегда прерывают во время речи.

^ He is being interrupted the third time during his speech. - Его прерывают во время речи уже третий раз.

He was interrupted during his speech. - Его прервали во время речи.

He was being interrupted when we left. - Когда мы ушли, его кто-то начал прерывать.

He will be interrupted, I’m sure. - Его будут прерывать, я уверен.

^ He has been interrupted so many times since the lecture started. - Его столько раз уже прервали с того момента, как началась лекция.

He had been interrupted four times before we came. - Перед тем, как мы пришли, его прервали четыре раза.

.^ He will have been interrupted five times by the end of his speech. - К концу речи будет уже пять раз, как его прерывал

Кроме того, пассивный залог в английском языке употребляется в оборотах, которые переводятся на русский как неопределенно личное предложение.

^ It’s said that you shouldn’t forgive the one who has deceived you once. -  Говорят, что нельзя прощать тех, кто однажды тебя обманул.

Отрицательная и вопросительная формы пассивного залога образуются таким же способом, как и во всех временах: делается инверсия при вопросе, прибавляется частица not к вспомогательному глаголу при отрицании, в данном случае – к глаголу to be.

При переводе пассивного залога следует помнить, что данный оборот может переводиться несколькими способами.

^ I was abused but I said nothing. - Меня оскорбили, но я ничего не сказал. Я был оскорблен, но ничего не сказал.

Также в страдательный залог нельзя перевести модальные глаголы, многие глаголы чувств и состояния, а также глаголы связки (тот же глагол to be).

Exercises

  1. Read and translate the sentences in the Passive Voice

  1. The first Russian University was founded in 1755.

  2. Books by Jack London are read by many readers with great interest.

  3. Many books by American writers have been translated into Russian.

  4. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by the district courts.

  5. Future investigators, detectives are trained at the Krasnodar University of the MIA.

  6. All the exams will be passed by me well.

  7. This text has been already translated.

  1. Choose a proper form (active or passive). Mind the word order where necessary:

  1. Russia (washes; is washed) by seas and oceans in the North and in the East.

  2. At our institute the students (teach; are taught) English, German, French.

  3. The University (founded; was founded) in 1755.

  4. I am sure the exams (will pass; will be passed) successfully.

  5. Our English lab (equips; is equipped) well. It’s interesting to work there.

  6. English (speaks; is spoken) at our English-tutorials.

  7. Specialists of high qualification (train; are trained) at the Krasnodar University of the MIA.

  1. Change the sentences from active into passive:

  1. The students saw this English film.

  2. I bought this book yesterday.

  3. He left his notebook at home.

  4. The Pacific Ocean washes the territory of Russia in the East.

  5. The students attend lectures and seminars with interest.

  6. The Krasnodar University of the MIA trains future detectives and investigators for Krasnodar territory.

  7. She translated this text last time.

  8. The Pacific Ocean washes the territory of Russia in the East.

  9. The students saw this English film.

  10. A Federal Court of Appeals serves each judicial circuit.

  11. The President recommends much of the legislation to the Congress.




  1. Translate the sentences using Passive Voice:

  1. Меня спрашивали на прошлом занятии по уголовному праву (to ask).

  2. Экзамены будут сданы нами успешно (to pass).

  3. В институте обучают трем иностранным языкам (to teach).

  4. Специальным предметам нас будут обучать на третьем и четвертом курсах (to teach).

  5. Наша страна омывается морями и океанами на севере и востоке (to wash).

  6. На занятии много говорилось о нашей будущей профессии (to speak of).



^ Сложные предложения с придаточным условия и времени

В предложениях с придаточным условия и времени в значении будущего времени употребляется Present Indefinite. В главном предложении сказуемое стоит в том времени, которое требуется по смыслу. Придаточные предложения времени вводятся союзами: when (когда), till (пока, до тех пор пока), as soon as (как только), before (прежде чем, до того как), after (после того как), while (в то время как), until (пока не).

^ Please stay here until I return.

I shall go for a walk as soon as I finish my work.

Придаточные предложения условия вводятся союзами: if (если), unless (если не), например:

If the weather is good on Sunday, we shall go for to the country.


Exercises 1. Read and translate the sentences

  1. When my brother is 17, he will finish school.

  2. If he doesn’t go to the cinema, he’ll ring us up.

  3. When I have my holiday in August, I’ll go to the USA.

  4. If you don’t learn these words, you won’t be able to write the test.

  5. Read this article on criminal law while I do the translation.

  6. Please, return my English textbook if you don’t use it.

  7. We’ll phone you as soon as he gives the answer.

  8. Speak to him about our plans when you see him.



Exercises 2. Put the verbs in the brackets into proper tense forms:

A farmer (to have) a friend who give (to grow) very good apple trees. One day he (to give) the farmer a small apple tree and (to tell) him to plant it. The farmer (to take) the tree and (to thank) his friend. But when he (to come) home he (not to know) where to plant it. ‘’If I (to plant) it in my garden’’, the farmer (to think), ‘’my son (to eat) the apples. If I (to plant) it near the road, other people (to eat) my apples’’. So he (to take) the tree to the forest and (to plant) it there. But the tree (cannot) grow without sunlight and soon it (to die).


Exercises 3.Translate into English:

  1. Если мы не будем хорошо знать ОРД, мы не сможем расследовать преступления.

  2. Мой брат будет поступать в Краснодарский университет МВД РФ, после того как вернется из армии.

  3. Мы узнаем много нового и интересного, когда будем изучать криминалистику.

  4. Мы не сможем читать книги на английском языке, если не будем учить слова.

  5. Я посмотрю сегодня этот фильм, если закончу перевод статьи.

  6. Как только он закончит университет, он пойдет работать в полицию.


^ Согласование времен. Косвенная речь

Согласование времен означает зависимость времени глагольного сказуемого придаточного предложения от времени сказуемого главного предложения. Если сказуемое главного предложения стоит в прошедшем времени, то сказуемое придаточного предложения тоже должно стоять в одном из прошедших времен. В зависимости от соотношения действий главного и придаточного предложений употребляются следующие временные формы в придаточном предложении

  1. для обозначения одновременного действия – Past Indefinite or Past Continuous, например:

I knew that they had an English lesson every Monday. I knew that they were busy because they were having an English lesson.

  1. для обозначения предшествующего действия – Past Perfect,например:

^ I knew that they had already had an English lesson.

  1. для обозначения последующего действия – Future in the Past, которое образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола should (для 1 лица ед. и мн. числа) и would (для остальных лиц) и инфинитива смыслового глагола без частицы ‘to’, например:

^ I know that they would have an English lesson the next day.


Косвенная речь

Речь, передаваемая не буквально, а по содержанию, в виде придаточного дополнительного предложения, называется косвенной речью.

При переводе повествовательного предложения в косвенную речь соблюдаются следующие правила:

  1. Повествовательное предложение вводится с союзом that.который, однако, часто упускается;

  2. Личные и притяжательные местоимения заменяются по смыслу, например:

He says, “I’ll finish my work very soon”. He says (that) he will finish his work very soon.

  1. Если после глагола to say имеется указание на лицо, то в косвенной речи он заменяется глаголом to tell, например:

He says to me “I’m very busy”. He tells me that he is very busy.

  1. Если сказуемое в главном предложении стоит в прошедшем времени, то действует правило согласования времен, например:

He said to me, “I’m very busy”. He told me that he was very busy.

  1. Указательные местоимения и наречия времени и места в косвенной речи заменяются следующим образом:

прямая речь косвенная речь

this that

these those

now then

today that day

tomorrow the next day

yesterday the day before

ago before

next (year) the next (year)

here there

He said, “I saw him yesterday”.

He said that he had seen him the day before.

При переводе вопросительного предложения в косвенную речь соблюдаются вышеизложенные правила. Помимо этого:

  1. Порядок слов в косвенном вопросе такой же, как и в повествовательном предложении;

  2. Общий вопрос вводится союзом If или whether (соответствует частице “ли” в русском языке), например:

He asked me, “Do you live in Moscow?” He asked me if I lived in Moscow.

  1. Специальные вопросы косвенной речи вводятся соответствующими вопросительными словами, например:

He asked us, “Where do you live?”

He asked where we lived.

При переводе побудительные предложений в косвенную речь необходимо соблюдать следующие правила:

  1. Приказания и просьбы в косвенной речи вводятся глаголом to tell (велеть), to order (приказывать), to ask (попросить);

  2. Глагол в повелительном наклонении заменяется инфинитивом или отрицанием not с инфинитивом для отрицательной формы, например:

  3. She said, “Help me, please”.

  4. She asked me to help her.

  5. She said, “Don’t be late”

  6. She asked me not to be late.

Ex. 1. Translate into Russian:

  1. My friend said that he had finished his scientific research the day before.

  2. The teacher asked us when Byron was born. We said that Byron was born on January 22, 1788.

  3. They said that they were going to take their exam in history the next week.

  4. I was asked if I knew about our meeting. I answered that I should be there at 5 o’clock.

  5. His sister told me that she would study medicine at the Institute.

  6. The students said that the story for home reading was Very interesting. They also said that they liked detective stories.

  7. He said that he had served in the Far East two years before.

  8. We were told that we could go in for different sports at our school.

  9. They asked when the seminar in Administrative Law would take place.

  10. My friend said that he was very busy that week with his report.

  11. She said that she would speak to them if she saw them the next day.

Ex. 2. Choose the right word.

  1. He asked me if I had visited my friends (yesterday, the day before).

  2. They said the conference in Criminal Law would take place (tomorrow, the next day)

  3. I was asked when I was going to return (here, there).

  4. I am sure that (this, that) is well-known all over the world.

  5. He said he would take part in scientific work (next, the next) year.

  6. They knew their friends were going to Kiev (now, then).

  7. She said she had been to the city of Smolensk a year (ago, before).

  8. We are told that we shall take our English exam (next, the next year).

  9. He said that the lecture in Criminalistics would take place (today, that day).

  10. She said that we could find the articles in (these, those) journals.

  11. They didn’t know it they would watch the football match (tomorrow, the next day).

Ex. 3. Make the following sentences indirect.

  1. He said,

“The students need more practice in speaking”

“These exercises are too difficult for me”.

“I don’t fell well today”.

“Nobody can do this work as well as my friend”

“I’ll come back in a few minutes”

“ I have already seen this film”.

  1. He asked me,

“Where does your sister live?”

“How old are you?”

“What time is it?”

“Where are you going?”

“How long have you studied English?”

“Do you like to study at the Moscow Law Institute?”

  1. I didn’t know,

“Where does she work?”

”Where did your brother go?”

“Does he know history well?”

“What is her husband’s name?”

“When will he visit his friends?”

  1. I said to him,

“Wait for me outside”;

“Come back in an hour”.

“Don’t tell anybody about it”.

“Go to the cinema by bus”.

“Bring me the textbook in economy”.


^ TEST REVISION


1. Choose the right answer

  1. The person who thinks that a judge has made a mistake may -------- to a higher court.

  1. adjudicate; b) authorize; c) administer; d) appeal;

  1. The -------- branch of a government decides whether laws are good and whether people have disobeyed these laws

  1. executive; b) legislative; c) judicial; d) fiscal

  1. The person who thinks that a judge has made a mistake may ---- to a higher court

a) appeal; b) authorize; c) administer; d) adjudicate

  1. All twelve members of the ------- were convinced of Davidson’s guilt

a) bystanders; b) court; c) jury; d) police

  1. The sign says that all shoplifters will be ….

a) prosecuted; b) persecuted; c) disproved; d) prohibited

  1. The body of law called … law deals with the private relations between members of a community

a) land; b) criminal; c) administrative; d) civil;

  1. A trial is a legal process in which a … examines a case to decide whether someone is guilty of crime

a) court of law (суд); b) college of advocates; c) legal aid office; d) legislative board


Try to do some tests up to the topics ‘’Court system of the United Kingdom’’, ‘’Court system of the USA’’

^ TEST №1

  1. Переведите следующие слова и выражения:

Court

Legal system

Sources of law

Written Law

Judge

Civil Law

Magistrates’ court

Civil case

County court

House of Lords

Accused

  1. Дополните следующие предложения:

  1. There are some common features to all systems in the UK …

  2. The sources of law include …

  3. The lowest courts are called …

  4. Magistrates’ courts are presided over by …

  5. Court of Appeal hears …

  1. Выполните следующий тест:

  1. The lowest courts are:

  1. Courts of Appeals

  2. Magistrates’ courts

  3. Crown courts

  1. Magistrates’ court consists of between:

  1. Two to seven magistrates

  2. One magistrate

  3. Twenty magistrates

  1. The final criminal appellate tribunal is :

  1. The House of Commons

  2. District court

  3. House of Lords

  1. Common Law is based on:

  1. Personal opinion of a judge

  2. Judicial precedent

  3. On the Queen’s opinion

  1. Central Criminal Court of London is known as:

  1. Supreme Court

  2. Old Bailey

  3. Crown Court

  1. Переведите следующий отрывок из текста:

The sources of law include written law (statutes, Acts of Parliament) and unwritten law (Common law and Equity). Common law is based on judicial precedent. It means that when one judge had decided a point of law, any other judge who has the similar set of facts must decide case in the same way as in the earlier judgment.

The lowest courts are called Magistrates’ courts, or police courts. Magistrates’ courts are presided over by Justices of the Peace (JP), or lay magistrates. They work part-time and are unpaid. The courts consist of between two to seven magistrates.

The Crown court deals with all more serious criminal cases. Appeals from Magistrates’ courts are also heard there. The accused have the right to be tried by the jury.

County courts are the main civil courts. The High court hears all those civil cases that cannot be decided by county courts.

The Court of Appeal hears both criminal and civil appeals. But the final criminal appellate tribunal is the House of Lords.

  1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

  1. What does the sources of law include?

  2. What courts are the lowest ones?

  3. What cases does the Crown court deal with?

  4. Does the Court of Appeal hear both criminal and civil cases?


Test II

  1. Переведите следующие слова и выражения:

Jurisdiction

Federal Court of Appeal

Chief Justice

Court of last resort

Minor trial court

Major trial court

State courts

To be appointed for life

District court

Circuit court

  1. Дополните следующие предложения:

  1. The American court is complex, mainly because of …

  2. The state’s minor trial courts have various names: justice courts …

  3. Federal courts are also organized in three tiers: …

  4. … are appointed for life.

  5. The decisions of the Supreme Court are …

  1. Выполните следующий тест:

  1. The structure of state courts:

  1. Are fixed in all states

  2. Varies from state to state

  3. Are not complex

  1. The state’s minor trial courts are called:

  1. The courts of last resort

  2. Circuit courts

  3. Justice courts, small-claim courts, police courts, traffic courts, municipal courts, mayors’ courts

  1. Federal courts are organized in:

  1. Two tiers

  2. One tier

  3. Three tiers

  1. All federal judges are appointed for:

  1. Life

  2. Two months

  3. Ten years

  1. The district courts are:

  1. The highest ones

  2. The lowest ones

  3. Intermediate appellate ones

  1. Переведите следующий отрывок из текста:

Federal courts are also organized in three tiers, like a pyramid: district courts, courts of appeals and the Supreme Court. All federal judges are appointed for life.

There are about ninety four district courts in different parts of the United States. The district courts are the lowest ones in the Federal court system. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by these courts. The district court is the only Federal court where trials are held, juries are used, and witnesses are called. There are about two hundred district judges in the USA.

All cases resolved in the district courts and all decisions of federal administrative agencies can be appealed to one of the thirteen federal circuit courts. There are no jurors, witnesses, cross-examinations and other features of the trial courts here. The judges sit in panels made up of three judges each, examining rulings made and procedures followed in the trial courts.

For most cases the circuit courts are the end of the line, but in some cases an appeal may be made to the highest court in the land: the U.S. Supreme Court.

  1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

  1. In what way are federal courts organized in the USA?

  2. How many district courts are there in the USA?

  3. What cases are tried by district courts?

  4. What cases can be appealed to federal circuit courts?

1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9



Похожие:



Если Вам понравился наш сайт, Вы можеть разместить кнопку на своём сайте или блоге:
refdt.ru


©refdt.ru 2000-2013
условием копирования является указание активной ссылки
обратиться к администрации
refdt.ru