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|Судебная система Великобритании|
Memorize the following universally accepted translations of the terms describing the elements of the English court system.
The word CASE has the following legal meaning in Russian
2. Read the text and answer the following questions
3. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions
Give as many word combinations as you can with the given words
5. Find in the text above the Russian equivalents for the following key words and expressions
6. Write down the words from which the adjectives are formed and translate the words into Russian
7. Make up 6 sentences and try to say each of them by heart
8. Confirm or deny the statements using the following phrases
9. Use the verbs in the correct forms and translate the sentences
10. Choose the correct form and translate the sentences
11. Retell the text using the following key word combinations
12. Give the explanation of the following in English
14. Circle the odd ones out
16. Translate the following text into English
Отделение по семейным делам
17. Read this short text and answer the question
18. Complete the definitions with these words.
|Тема № 13|
Professional statute [prq’feSnql ‘stxtju:t]
Analogy [q ‘nxlqGi]
Appeal [ x’pi:l]
Appellate [ q’pilit]
The European Court of Justice – Суд Европейских Сообществ
The Court of Appeal – Апелляционный суд
The High Court – Высокий суд
The Crown Court – Суд Короны
County court – Суд Графств
Magistrates’ court – Суд Магистров, Мировой суд
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council – Судебный комитет Тайного совета
The Queen’s Bench Division – Отделение королевской скамьи
The Commercial Court – Коммерческий суд, суд по делам торговли
The Admiralty Court – Суд по морским делам, морской суд
The Administrative Court – Административный суд
The Family Division – Отделение по семейным делам
The Chancery Division – Канцелярское отделение
The Divisional Court – Апелляционное присутствие
The Civil Division – Отделение по гражданским делам
The Criminal Division – Отделение по уголовным делам
Law Lords – Судебные лорды (члены апелляционного комитета палаты лордов)
The Lord Chief Justice – лорд-главный судья
Lord Justice of Appeal – судья апелляционного суда
The Supreme Court – Верховный суд
legal case – судебное дело
2) случай, прецедент
to follow the case - следовать прецеденту
3) судебная практика
under the case - в соответствии с судебной практикой
4) судебный иск
to bring a case - возбудить иск
Text № 1
1. Some new words for the text:
Statute статут, законодательный акт
Common Law and Equity общее право и право справедливости
Case law, judge-made law прецедентное право
Judicial precedent судебный прецедент
Similar подобный, похожий
Judgement судебное решение
Justice of the Peace (JP) мировой судья
Judgemade право, созданное на основе судебной практики
To try разбирать в судебном порядке
Trial судебное разбирательство
Juvenile подросток, несовершеннолетний
Coroner коронер (следователь, специальной функцией
которого является расследование случаев
насильственной или внезапной смерти)
There are four countries and three separate systems of law in the United Kingdom: the legal system of law and courts of 1.England and Wales; 2.Scotland; 3.Northern Ireland. However, there are some common features to all systems in the U.K.: the sources of law, the distinctions between civil and criminal law.
The sources of law include written law (statutes, Acts of Parliament) and unwritten law (Common law and Equity). Common law is based on judicial precedent. It means that when one judge had decided a point of law, any other judge who has the similar set of facts must decide case in the same way as in the earlier judgement.
The lowest courts are called Magistrates’ courts, or police courts. Magistrates’ courts are presided over by Justices of the Peace (JP), or lay magistrates. They work part-time and are unpaid. The courts consist of between two to seven magistrates. There are about 700 magistrates’ courts and about 30,000magistrates.
More serious criminal cases go to the Crown court, which has 90 branches in different towns and cities. Appeals from Magistrates’ courts are also heard there. The accused have the right to be tried by the jury.
There is the Central Criminal Court of London. It is known as the Old Bailey.
County courts are the main civil courts. The High court hears all those civil cases that cannot be decided by county courts.
The Court of Appeal hears both criminal and civil appeals. But the final criminal appellate tribunal is the House of Lords. Ten judges in the House of Lords are called the «Law Lords».
The legal system also includes juvenile courts (which deal with offenders under seventeen) and coroners’ courts (which investigate violent, sudden or unnatural deaths). There are administrative tribunals which make quick, cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. Tribunals deal with professional standards, disputes between individuals, and disputes between individuals and government departments (for example, over taxation).
Источник права; различие между уголовным и гражданским правом; основанное на судебном прецеденте; подобные факты; суды низшей инстанции; работать бесплатно; иметь право на судебное разбирательство с судом присяжных; гражданские апелляции; члены палаты лордов, рассматривающие судебные дела, правонарушитель, насильственная смерть.
To try (уголовное дело, гражданское дело и т.д.);
Court ( низшей инстанции, апелляционный, мировой и т.д.);
Case (возбудить, судебное, решать и т.д.);
To appoint (председателя суда, судью, прокурора и т.д.).
- separate system of law
- common features
- lay magistrate
- to work part-time
- a point of law
- unwritten law
- to hear criminal appeals
- final appellate tribunal
- juvenile courts
- administrative tribunals
- fair decisions
- sudden and unnatural deaths.
Judicial __________________ parliamentary ________________
Constitutional _____________ decisive _____________________
Systematical _______________ unwritten ____________________
Elementary ________________ conventional _________________
Legislative ________________ knowledgeable _______________
Governmental _____________ advisory ____________________
1. Magistrates’ courts. 1. hears all civil cases that cannot be
decided by county courts.
2. County courts. 2. is the final appellate tribunal.
3. Crown courts. 3. are the main civil courts.
4. High court. 4. try the majority of all criminal cases and
some civil cases.
5. Court of Appeal. 5. hears both criminal and civil appeals.
6. House of Lords. 6. deals with all the more serious criminal
I quite agree with it…
I don’t agree with it…
Excuse me but…
On the contrary…
I am afraid it’s not quite so…
8. There are administrative tribunals which make quick, cheap and fair
decisions with much less formality.
1. Prosecution in the UK (to initiate) and conducted by the police.
2. Police courts in towns (to hear) less serious cases.
3. Police courts (to consist) of 2 – 7 justices of the peace who (to be) often without legal training.
4. In some cases the magistrates (to advise) by Clerks of the Court.
5. A magistrates’ court (to be) in session two times a week.
1. If a person breaks the law he must bring/be brought first before a magistrates’ court.
2. A magistrates’ court has the power to fine/to be fined people up to 100 pounds.
3. A magistrates’ court can also send/be sent people to prison for up to six months.
4. If a case is too serious it sends/is sent to the Crown Court.
5. If there are any appeals they send/are sent to the Court of Appeals.
6. Appeals on very serious cases consider/are considered by the House of Lords Court of Appeals.
Three separate systems of law; based on judicial precedent; to have similar set of facts; to work part-time; to deal with all more serious cases; the main civil courts; the final criminal appellate tribunal; juvenile courts; coroners’ courts.
13. Translate the following definitions into Russian:
1. prosecution defence theft
2. sentence alibi excuse
3. verdict decision complaint
4. try convict find guilty
5. evidence court proof
6. lawyer judge defendant
15. Complete the following sentences with the words and expressions from the box. Translate the sentences.
Особенностью Верховного суда (Supreme Court) Англии и Уэльса является то, что он состоит из трех судов:
- Высокого суда
- Суда Короны
- Апелляционного суда.
Высокий суд имеет гражданско-правовую юрисдикцию, Суд Короны – уголовно-правовую, а Апелляционный суд рассматривает жалобы (complaints) на их решения.
В составе ^ имеются три отделения:
- Отделение королевской скамьи
- канцелярское отделение
- отделение по семейным делам.
Отделение королевской скамьи рассматривает сложные гражданские дела.
Канцелярское отделение решает дела, связанные с управлением имуществом и банкротством.
^ рассматривает сложные семейные споры.
Суд Короны имеет уголовно-правовую юрисдикцию. Дела рассматриваются судьей-профессионалом и присяжными.
Апелляционный суд рассматривает жалобы на решения Высокого суда и Суда Короны.
What kind of people are Magistrates?
In Britain, the vast majority of judges are unpaid. They are called ‘Magistrates’ or ‘Justices of the Peace’ (JPs). They are ordinary citizens who are selected not because they have legal training but because they have ‘sound common sense’ and understand their fellow human beings. They give up time voluntarily.
A small proportion of judges are not Magistrates. They are called ‘High Court Judges’ and they deal with the most serious crimes, such as those for which the criminal might be sent to prison for more than a year. High Court Judges, unlike Magistrates, are paid salaries by the State and have considerable legal training.
Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and district. Nobody, not even the Magistrates themselves, knows who is on the special committee in their area. The committee tries to draw Magistrates from as wide a variety of professions and social classes as possible.
Court house; investigator; jail; reputation; supervision; weapon
It’s interesting to know
In Great Britain in civil cases, the person suing was, until 1999, known as the PLAINTIFF, but now officially called the CLAIMANT, and the person sued is the DEFENDANT.
The word DEFENDANT has the following meanings in Russian:
Civil defendant - ответчик
Bailed defendant – обвиняемый или подсудимый, освобожденный под залог
Judgement for the defendant – судебное решение в пользу ответчика или подсудимого
Representation of defendant – представительство интересов подзащитного или подсудимого
Match the following English expressions with their Russian equivalents:
Civil matters гражданские дела
Approximately приблизительно, примерно, около
On point of law с точки зрения права (закона)
To impose a sentence выносить приговор
Imprisonment тюремное заключение
At random наугад, по жребию
Defendant ответчик, обвиняемый, подсудимый
To appeal подавать апелляционную жалобу, обжаловать
To make decision принимать решения
Juvenile court суд по делам несовершеннолетних
The Court System of England and Wales
This text is limited to the system of courts in England and Wales and does not address issues relating to courts in Scotland and Northern Ireland. In Scotland there is the Roman-Dutch Civil Law system adopted in the 16th century and currently found in most of the Continental Europe. As for Northern Ireland the courts have their jurisdiction which is separate from that of the courts in England and Wales although they also follow the Common Law system.
There are two main types of court in England and Wales: magistrates’ courts (or courts of the first instance), which deal with about 95 per cent of criminal cases and with some civil matters, and Crown Courts for more serious offences. All criminal cases above the level of magistrates’ courts are held before a jury.
There are about 700 magistrates’ courts in England and Wales, served by approximately 28,000 unpaid magistrates or Justices of the Peace (JPs) who are ordinary citizens. A court normally consists of three magistrates, who are advised on points of law by a legally qualified clerk. They may impose a sentence of more than six months imprisonment or a fine of more than 2000 pounds, and may refer cases requiring a heavier penalty to the Crown Court. A Crown Court is presided over by a professional judge, but the verdict is reached by a jury of twelve citizens, who are selected at random. There are some offences where the defendant is given the choice of having his case heard in the magistrates’ court or the Crown Court.
A person convicted in a magistrates’ court may appeal against its decision to the local Crown Court, which will hear the appeal without a jury. On points of law he may appeal directly to the Queen’s Bench Division of the High Court. Appeals against a decision of the Crown Court go first to the High Court and, in special cases, to the Court of Appeal (Criminal Division). The highest court of appeal is the House of Lords. The decisions of law lords on both criminal and civil matters bind all other courts. Only the government can overturn a decision of the House of Lords by passing an Act of Parliament.
Apart from the limited civil functions of magistrates’ courts, the lowest court in a civil action is a County Court, of which there is one in every town in England and Wales. The judges are always professionals. They may hear matters such as contract disputes and actions regarding the property of a dead person. Cases involving larger amounts of money are heard by one of the divisions of the High Court. Appeals from the High Court, and most appeals from the County Courts, go to the Court of Appeal (Civil Division).
In addition to the courts mentioned above there are numerous special courts which have been established to make decisions in particular types of dispute, for example, juvenile courts and coroners’ courts.
- Civil matters
- To decide the law
- Ordinary citizens
- Heavier penalty
- Professional judge
- Civil functions
- Lowest courts
- Juvenile courts
- Coroners’ courts.
1. There are three main types of court in England and Wales.
2. All criminal cases above the level of magistrates’ courts are never held
before a jury.
3. The highest court of appeal is the House of Commons.
4. The government can not overturn a decision of the House of Lords.
8. Translate from Russian into English using the construction ‘It is … that…’ / ‘именно, как раз, только’
1. Именно это судебное решение было для него главным.
House, Appeal, leapfrog, High Court of Justice, Division, instance, Magistrates’ Court.
The Court System in England and Wales
The … of Lords
Appeals may sometimes go to
The Court of Appeal The Court of …
(Criminal Division) (Civil Division)
Appeals usually go to
Appeals go from here to or may … to
The Crown Court The … … … …
Queen’s Bench Division
Appeals go from here to Appeals may leapfrog from here to
The … The County Court or
The Court of First …
It’ Interesting to Know
In the earliest days judges were not only paid but also provided with food and clothing by the Sovereign. Their clothing was primarily made from the finest wool and silk, but colour of the dress was influenced by the fashion of the day. There was no uniformity of dress until the Westminster Decree of 1635 which prescribed in minutest detail the dress to be worn by all judges. It has remained virtually unchanged to this day.
There’s an old Russian proverb – ‘’At meeting, you’re judged by your clothes. At parting, you’re judged by your wits.’’ In law, you’re always judged by your clothes. Even on the hottest summer days, you have to keep your jacket on in all meetings, and the jacket must be either a double-breasted woolen one or, if single-breasted, accompanied by a matching waistcoat. On top of that, in court, you have to wear the horsehair wig and black gown.
From the history of British Courts
Different countries develop their own form of dispute resolution, which is more fit for their culture and historical background. Prior to the Norman Conquest, there was no system of law which was common to England. Justice was administered locally. There was no English law as such. Rather, there was a variety of different regional system. During the reign of Henry II, judges were sent to the provinces where they could become familiar with local customs and could use their knowledge to develop a single law that was common to the entire country. Thus the system of courts and common law developed at Westminster and around the country by means of itinerant judges. That was a single system of law for the whole country: common law. This approach established the importance of judicial decisions as a source of law, though it was not truly formalized until the establishment of reliable system of case reporting in 1865.
The doctrine of precedent was based on the principles of stare decisis, obiter dicta and ratio decedendi according to which a later court is to be bound to apply the same reasoning as an earlier court where the two cases raise substantially the same questions of principle. The binding nature of the doctrine of precedent created a foundation of certainly. However, apart from certainly the law needs some flexibility.
By the 14th century, the common law had ceased to be flexible and failed to meet the demands of the new cases. More and more litigants who could not obtain redress from the common law would petition the King. Eventually, it was the Lord-Chancellor rather than the King who heard petitions. As the number of such petitions grew the Court of Chancery was established and equity developed as a system of justice distinct from the common law. Equity introduced a number of remedies unknown in the common law. This quite frequently allowed to seek such a remedy when all the common law remedies had been exhausted. At the same time equity was never a rival of the common law. It simply provided additional ‘alternative’ ways of achieving justice.
For example, the common law relied on a single remedy: damages. However this remedy was often found to be inadequate or inappropriate. Equity was able to develop a range of alternative, discretionary remedies.
For centuries, the system of law and equity were administered separately. The creation of a single organized system of courts in England dates back to 1873 – 1875 when the Judicature Act brought the two systems together so that all courts could grant both legal and equitable remedies. It should be noted that this was a procedural fusion of common law and equity, i.e. from that point all courts had both common law and equitable jurisdiction. As far as substantive law is concerned the two systems remain distinct. It established that where there was a conflict between the two systems Equity should prevail.
- общее право
- право справедливости
- основанный на праве справедливости
- источник права
- судебное решение
- разрешение споров
- Канцлерский суд
- Акт о судоустройстве
- судьи, объезжающие округа, разъездные судьи
- отправлять правосудие
- создавать единую правовую систему
- добиваться судебной защиты
- добиться правовой защиты
- предоставлять правовую защиту
- подавать прошение, ходатайствовать
- рассматривать ходатайство, прошение.
2. case reporting
3. legal reasoning
4. equitable remedy
5. legal remedy
6. discretionary remedy
Text № 2
1. Read and translate the text
Farewell to the Traditional System of Justice or Just a New Supreme Court?
One of the most significant changes in the judicial system of England and Wales is the introduction of a brand new institution, which will be totally different from all the bodies existing within the system so far – the new Supreme Court.
The new Supreme Court is supposed to put the relationship between the executive, the legislative and the judiciary on a modern footing respecting the separation of powers between the three. The functions of the highest courts in the land are currently divided between the House of Lords (the Appellate Committee) and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. The Appellate Committee of the House of Lords receives appeals from the courts in England and Wales and Northern Ireland, and in civil cases from Scotland. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, in addition to its overseas and ecclesiastical jurisdiction, considers questions as to whether the developed administrations, the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales and Northern Ireland Assembly are acting within their legal powers. The Human Rights Act 1998 which made the European Convention on Human Rights a part of English domestic law makes stricter requirements to ensuring independence and impartiality of the judicial system. It raises questions about whether there is sufficient independence from the executive and the legislature when the highest court of appeal is situated within one of the chambers of Parliament. The Government believes that the creation of a separate Supreme Court will be an important part of the reforms which will rearrange the relationship between the Judiciary, the Government and Parliament to preserve and increase independence of English judges.
The idea of the reform of the highest court in the land is about abolishing the jurisdiction of the House of Lords within the UK’s judicial system and vesting the functions currently performed by Appellate Committee of the House of Lords in a new Supreme Court which will by no means be connected to Parliament. It should be understood that this will not be a Supreme Court based on the US model with the power to strike down and annul legislation and assert the primacy of the constitution. Nor will it be a constitutional court based on the German model or a court which would give definite rulings on difficult points of law the way the European Court of Justice does. A Supreme Court along one of such models would be a departure from the UK’s constitutional traditions where Parliament is supreme. Regardless of the membership in the European Union and the Human Rights Act this principle remains intact.
As regard the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council it also acts as the final court of appeal for a number of Commonwealth and overseas territory jurisdictions, as well as for independent jurisdictions and it seems that it is going to continue to provide this important function. Instead of the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary being appointed to the Judicial Committee, the members of the Supreme Court will be so appointed.
The initial members of the new Supreme Court will be the existing Lords of Appeal in Ordinary. The Government proposes that members of the Supreme Court should lose the right to sit and vote in the House while they are members of the Supreme Court. Any one who is a member of the House before joining the Court will retain the peerage and title, and will be free to return to the House when he or she ceases to sit on the Court. It is proposed that the members of the Court will be appointed on the same basis as senior judges now are. That is, they will be appointed during good behavior, but may be removed by Her Majesty on the address of both Houses of Parliament. The statutory retirement age is likely to be fixed at 75, so that each member can be assured of comparatively long tenure and the Court enjoys some stability.
The new Supreme Court will be the highest court in all three jurisdictions in the realm, i.e. it will be the supreme court of the United Kingdom. There is, however, already the Supreme Court of England and Wales, which consists of the Court of Appeal, the High Court and the Crown Court by virtue of the Supreme Court Act 1981. In Scotland the term ‘Supreme Court’ has also been used to refer to the Court of Session and the High Court of Judiciary collectively. There is also a Supreme Court of Northern Ireland. However, to avoid confusion, in the future the title of Supreme Court will be reserved for the Court to be created as a result of this constitutional reform. The new Court cannot become part of any of the existing Supreme Courts because will extend to all three jurisdictions.
- Верховный суд Шотландии
- Сессионный суд (высший суд по гражданским делам в Шотландии)
- судьи-члены апелляционного комитета палаты лордов
- внутреннее право государства (внутригосударственное право)
- старший судья
- пенсионный возраст
- пребывание в должности
- действовать в пределах предусмотренной законом компетенции
- отменять законодательство
- администрации с делегированными полномочиями
- занимать должность пожизненно при условии надлежащего поведения
- предъявлять более строгие требования
- обеспечивать независимость и беспристрастность судебной системы
- передать функции новому Верховному суду
- утверждать верховенство конституции
- выносить окончательные решения по сложным вопросам права
- сохранить звание и титул пэра
- на основании Акта (закона) о Верховном суде
1. The structure of the new Supreme Court, its membership and functions.
2. The changes in the House of Lords.
3. The role of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The jury has a long history within the English legal system, although its role has changed significantly during that time. Originally, members of the jury were witnesses, summoned for their local knowledge. Today, they are a group of twelve ordinary people with no special knowledge, chosen at random to act as impartial judges of the facts of a case. In a jury trial, the jury is advised by the trial judge on the relevant law; its function is then to apply the law to the facts and then decide, in criminal cases, whether the defendant is guilty or not guilty and, in civil cases, whether the defendant is liable to the plaintiff. The decision of a jury is called a verdict. In civil cases the jury will also decide on the amount of damages to be awarded to the plaintiff.
Although the jury continues to have much symbolic importance in the English legal system, in practice its role has been greatly diminished over recent years.
A. What is the jury? А. Что такое коллегия присяжных /
B. Today, the members of the jury Б. В настоящее время коллегия
are a group of twelve ordinary присяжных состоит из 12 человек,
people with no special knowledge, обыкновенных людей,
chosen at random to act as impartial без специальных
judges of the facts of a case. знаний, выбранных наугад,
для выполнения функций
беспристрастных судей при
рассмотрении дела в суде.
^ . What are its functions? А. Каковы функции суда
B. In a jury trial, the jury is Б. На суде присяжных судья,
advised by the trial judge on the участвующий в рассмотрении
relevant law; its function is then дела, консультирует коллегию
to apply the law to the facts and присяжных о правовой норме,
then decide, in criminal cases, распространяющейся на данный
whether the defendant is guilty факт (разъясняет смысл закона).
or not guilty and, in civil cases Функции присяжных –
whether the defendant is liable применение закона к факту,
to the plaintiff. рассматриваемому судом,
и вынесение решения о
виновности или невиновности
рассмотрении уголовных дел,
а при рассмотрении гражданских
дел присяжные должны
определить, подлежит ли
ответственности перед истцом.
^ . How is the decision of a jury А. Как называется решение
called? присяжного суда?
B. It is called a verdict Б. Оно называется вердиктом.
A. What is the role of a jury in А. Какую роль играет суд
legal practice today? присяжных в наши дни
в судебной практике?
B. In practice its role has been greatly Его роль за последние годы в
diminished over recent years. значительной мере ослабла.
Nowadays the following cases В настоящее время суд
are tried by jury: присяжных рассматривает
malicious prosecution false следующие дела: злонамеренное
imprisonment, fraud. судебное преследование,
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