Учебное пособие по английскому языку краснодар 2012 Печатается по решению



НазваниеУчебное пособие по английскому языку краснодар 2012 Печатается по решению
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Тема № 12

Государственное устройство РФ

1. Some new words to the text

To vest in облекать, наделять

To make treaties заключать договоры

To enforce laws проводить законы в жизнь

To approve одобрять

To observe соблюдать

To defend защищать

To hold занимать

Popular vote всеобщее голосование

Extensive powers широкие полномочия

Consent согласие

To reject отклонять

To proceed продолжать

To dissolve распускать

To establish учреждать

To confirm утверждать

A state of emergency чрезвычайное положение


2. Read and translate the text

^ STATE SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The Russian Federation is set up by the Constitution of 1993. Under the Constitution Russia is a presidential republic. The federal government consists of three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. Each of them is checked and balanced by the President.

The President of the Russian Federation is a head of a state and a commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He has extensive powers. He observes and defends the Constitution and holds generally a central position in the system of Government. He is elected by popular vote for a six-year term.

The President may preside at meetings of the Government. He establishes and chairs the Security Council, confirms the Russian military doctrine, appoints a number of the leading officials. Acting with the consent of the State Duma, the President appoints the Prime Minister. If the State Duma rejects the President’s candidates three times, the President will proceed with appointment, dissolve the State Duma and announce a new election.

The declaration of war or of a state of emergency is within the President’s prerogative too, but he must inform the Parliament of such decisions and must seek the approval of the Federation Council.

The legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly. It is a permanently functioning body. It consists of two separately functioning chambers: the Federation Council (the upper Chamber) and the State Duma (the lower chamber).

The Federation Council (the upper Chamber) includes two representatives from each constituent entity of the Russian Federation and the State Duma (the lower chamber) consists of 450 deputies. Each chamber is headed by the Speaker. Legislature is initiated in the Lower Chamber. But in order to become a law a bill must be approved by both Chambers and must be signed by the President. The President may also veto the bill. The State Duma may override the veto.

The executive power belongs to the Government which is headed by the Prime Minister. The government presents a draft budget to be discussed by the State Duma and it provides its implementation and realization of financial, credit and monetary policies. The government also ensures state security, realization of foreign policy, implementation of a uniform state policy in the sphere of culture, science, education, social security, health, and ecology.

The judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the regional (lower) courts. The Supreme Court is the highest instance for civil and criminal cases. The responsibility of the Constitutional Court is to analyze the new laws to make sure they correspond to the laws of the state.

Today the state symbol of Russia is a three-coloured banner. It has three horizontal stripes: white, blue and red. The white stripe symbolizes the earth, the blue one stands for the sky, and the red one symbolizes liberty. The hymn of Russia has been created by Alexandrov and Mikhalkov. Now the national coat of arms is a two-headed eagle. It is the most ancient symbol of Russia. It originates from the heraldic emblem of the Ruricivich signifying the succession of the Russian state from the Byzantine Empire.

^ 3. Find in the text above the Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions:

- two separately functioning chambers

- the most ancient symbol

- to announce a new election

- a state of emergency

- the national coat of arms

- a number of the leading officials

- popular vote

- military doctrine

- to override the veto

- a three-coloured banner

- to have extensive powers.

^ 4. Match the synonyms:

A bill to veto

To enforce a proposed law

To prohibit to exert

A chamber to be composed of

To consist a house

5. Complete the following sentences. Consult the text:

1. Russia is ____________________________________________________.

2. The federal government consists of _______________________________.

3. Now the national coat of arms is __________________________________.

4. The stripes of the three coloured banner symbolize ___________________.

5. The executive power belongs to __________________________________.

6. Legislature is initiated __________________________________________.

7. The members of the State Duma are elected ________________________.


^ 6. Translate the sentences, use the information from the text:

1. Государственная власть в Российской Федерации разделяется на три ветви: законодательную, исполнительную и судебную.

2. Президент РФ может наложить вето на законопроект, предложенный Федеральным собранием.

3. По Конституции право законодательной инициативы принадлежит обеим палатам российского парламента.

4. Исполнительная власть в РФ принадлежит Премьер-министру, который назначается Президентом.

5. Конституция РФ регулирует отношения между государством и его гражданами.


^ 7. Fill in the blanks.

Under the Constitution Russia is a presidential republic. The federal government consists of three (1) ___: legislative, executive and judicial. Each of them is balanced by the President. The legislative power is (2) ___ in the Federal Assembly. It consists of two chambers. The (3) _____ chamber is the Council of Federation. The lower chamber is the State Duma. Each chamber is (4) ___ by the Speaker. Legislature is initiated in the Lower Chamber. But in order to become a law a bill must be (5) ____ by both Chambers and must be signed by the President.

The executive power belongs to the Government which is headed by the Prime Minister. The first action of the Prime Minister on appointment is (6) __ the Cabinet.

The judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional Court, (7) ___ Court and the regional courts.

^ 8. What else do you know about your country? Answer the following questions:

1. How often are general elections held in Russian Federation?

2. When was the last general election held?

3. Can you name the last three Prime Ministers?

4. Can you name the Minister of Internal Affairs?

5. Can you give an example of the recent change of government?

6. How many political parties are there in Russian Federation?

^ 9. Read, translate and reproduce the dialogue:

Two British students speak about governmental structure of Russian Federation

A. Do you know is Russia a constitutional monarchy or a presidential republic?

B. As far as I know, Russia is a presidential republic.

A. What is the state power of Russia carried out by?

B. It is carried out by diving power into three branches: legislative, executive and judicial.

^ A. What can you say about the legislative branch?

B. It is vested in the Federal Assembly consisting of two separately functioning chambers: the Federation Council (the upper Chamber) and the State Duma (the lower chamber).

A. And whom does the executive power belong to?

B. It belongs to the Government which is headed by the Prime Minister.

A. And what do you know about the judicial branch?

B. It is represented by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the regional (lower) courts.

A. It’s very interesting. Thank you.

B. You’re welcome.


^ 10. Retell the text.


Topical Vocabulary

Судебная система Великобритании,

Судебная система США

Study the following terms. Then do some exercises.

Типы судов / Types of courts

Court – 1. суд, состав суда, судьи. 2. здание суда

Court of appeals – апелляционный суд

Court of honour – суд чести

Court of justice – суд, судебный орган

Court of last resort – суд высшей инстанции

Court of general jurisdiction – суд общей юрисдикции

Court of law - суд

Court martial - трибунал

Court of original jurisdiction – суд первой инстанции

Court system – судебная система

City police court – городской полицейский суд

Civil court – суд по гражданским делам

Coroner’s court – суд коронера

Criminal police court – уголовный полицейский суд

Crown court – суд короны

Circuit court – выездной окружной суд

District court – окружной суд

European court of Justice – Европейский суд

High court – Высокий суд

Higher / superior courts – суды более высокой инстанции

Inferior / lower courts – суды более низкой инстанции

International court of Justice – Международный суд ООН

Juvenile court – суд по делам несовершеннолетних

Magistrates’ court – суд магистров, мировой суд

Supreme Court – Верховный суд

^ Зал суда / Courtroom

Bar – барьер, за которым находиться суд

Bench – место судей

The dock – скамья подсудимых

Jury box – места присяжных

Prisoner’s box – место обвиняемого

Witness box / witness stand – место для дачи свидетельских показаний

^ Обращение в суд / Taking a matter to court

Action / claim complaint - иск

To answer the complaint / to challenge the complaint – рассматривать иск / жалобу

Application - ходатайство

To be sued – отвечать в суде

Case / suit – судебное дело, тяжба

Charge - обвинение

Complaint - жалоба

Counter-charge – встречное обвинение

Counter-claim – встречный иск

Declaration / statement – заявление

To file a complaint – подавать жалобу

To go to court – обращаться в суд

To initiate a civil action – возбуждать гражданский иск

Legal action – судебный иск

Petition for review - заявление в суд о пересмотре дела

Plaint – исковое заявление

Plaint – исковое заявление

Prayer – просьба, ходатайство (в суде)

To sue – возбуждать иск, дело; подавать в суд

^ Участники судебного процесса / Participants of legal procedure

Adjudicator – судья, арбитр

Accused – обвиняемый, ответчик

Accuser – свидетель обвинения, жалобщик

Appellant – лицо, подающее апелляционную жалобу

Arbitrator – третейский судья, арбитр

Attorney / barrister / lawyer / counsel for the defence / defending counsel – адвокат

Bar / court in bank - суд в полном составе

Bailiff / constable - судебный пристав

Bench – суд, судьи, состав суда

Chief witness – главный свидетель

Claimant / plaintiff – истец (в гражданских делах)

Counsel for plaintiff / attorney for the plaintiff (US) – защита истца (в гражданских делах)

Counsel for the prosecution / counsel for the state – защита обвинения (в уголовных делах)

Coroner – коронер (следователь, специальной функцией которого является расследование случаев насильственной или внезапной смерти)

Defendant - подзащитный

Judge - судья

Jury – присяжные (заседатели)

Juror – присяжный заседатель

Justice of the peace – мировой судья

Lay magistrate – мировой судья

Litigant – сторона в судебном процессе

Parties to a lawsuit – стороны судебного разбирательства

Plaintiff - истец

Prisoner at the bar – обвиняемый (на скамье подсудимых)

Prosecution - обвинение

Prosecutor / procurator / counsel for the prosecution / the prosecuting counsel - прокурор

Solicitor – ходатай, поверенный

State – истец (в уголовных делах)

Witness - свидетель

Witness for the prosecution – свидетель обвинения

Witness for the defence – свидетель защиты

^ Судебные слушания / Court hearings

To abjure – отрицать (что-либо) под присягой

To adjudicate – рассмотреть спор, разрешить дело, решить (в судебном порядке)

Adjudication of claim – рассмотрение иска

To accuse (smb for smth) – обвинять (кого-либо в чем-либо)

To administer justice – отправлять, осуществлять правосудие

Alleged - инкриминируемый

To be alleged – подозреваться

To be brought before the court / to appear before the court / to face the court – предстать перед судом

To be charged (with smth) – обвиняться (в чем-либо)

To bring to court – отдавать под суд

To call a witness – вызвать свидетеля

Capital charge – обвинение в преступлении, предусматривающем высшую меру наказания

To charge (smb with smth) / to indict (smb on/for smth) – предъявлять обвинение (кому-л. в чем-л.)

Charge (of smth) – обвинение (в чем-либо)

Contempt of court - неуважение к суду

To commit to court – предавать суду

To find (smb.) guilty – признать (кого-либо) виновным

To judge (smb for smth) / to try (smb for smth) – судить (кого-либо за что-либо)

To judge in secret – слушать в закрытом суде

Justicement – судопроизводство, ход дела

Lawsuit / judicial proceedings – судебный процесс

Legal proceeding(s) – судопроизводство, процессуальные действия

To make an open statement – сделать открытое заявление

Minor charge – обвинение в незначительном проступке

Objection - протест

Plea – заявление (ответчика)

To plead a case – вести, защищать дело (в суде)

To plead (not) guilty – признать себя (не) виновным

Pleading – выступление защиты, ходатайство

To perjure - лжесвидетельствовать

Perjurer - лжесвидетель

Perjury – лжесвидетельство

To produce an alibi – предоставить алиби

To state the case – излагать дело

To swear - клясться

To take an oath / to swear an oath – приносить клятву

To testify before a court – давать показания в суде

^ Приговор / Sentence

To acquit smb (of/on smth) – оправдать, признать невиновным кого-то (в чем-то)

To adjudge smb guilty – признать кого-либо виновным

To adjudge to die – приговорить к смертной казни

To adjudge to jail – приговорить к судебному заключению

Adjudg(e)ment – вынесение судебного решения, приговора, осуждение

Adjudication – судебное решение, приговор, осуждение

To appeal against a sentence – обжаловать приговор

To be sentenced (to smth) - быть приговоренным (к чему –либо)

To bring in / to give (a verdict) – выносить вердикт

To bring in a verdict of guilty – вынести обвинительный вердикт

To commit a sentence - смягчить приговор

To condemn (to smth) – 1. осуждать, приговорить (к чему-либо)

2. конфисковать

Condemnation – 1. осуждение 2. конфискация 3. отказ в иске

To convict – объявлять виновным, осудить

Conviction – осуждение, обвинительный приговор

Court ruling / court injunctions – постановление суда, судебное предписание, решение

Fine / penalty - штраф

Judgement – решение суда, приговор

To overrule / to reserve / to quash (a conviction) – аннулировать (обвинение)

To pass a sentence / to impose a sentence – выносить приговор

To pass a judgement (on smb) – выносить приговор (кому-либо)

A reserved judgement – отсроченное решение

Rule of court - судебный приказ, судебное постановление

Sentence – приговор

Suspended sentence - условный приговор

To sum up – обобщать, оценивать, исследовать

Verdict – вердикт, заключение

^ 1. Match the names of participants of legal procedure with their definitions. Translate into Russian:

  1. bailiff a) a person who testifies under oath in court regarding what

was seen, heard or otherwise observed

  1. coroner b) a public officer whose principal duty is to inquire into

the case of any unnatural death

  1. defendant c) a person, company, etc. against whom a criminal charge

or civil claim is made

  1. jury d) the party who begins an action, complains or sues

  2. juror e) one who is engaged in a lawsuit

  3. litigant f) a member of a jury

  4. plaintiff g) an act of pursuing a lawsuit or criminal trial; the party

that initiates a criminal case

  1. prosecutor h) a specific number of people, usually six or twelve,

selected as prescribed by law to render a decision in a trial

  1. prosecution i) a court employee who among other things maintains

order in the courtroom and is responsible for custody of

the jury

10)witness j) the public officer who represents the interests of the

state in criminal trials and the county in all legal matters

involving the county in criminal cases; he has the

responsibility of deciding who and when to prosecute.

^ 2. Match the verbs on the left with their meanings on the right. Use topical vocabulary:

1) to be charged (with smth) a) to be found guilty (of anything)

2) to accuse b) to ask all witness involved in a case question

3) to appeal c) to act as a judge

4) to allege d) to charge with an offence; to blame

5) to defend e) to carry on a lawsuit

6) to prosecute f) to testify, to act as legal witness

7) to judge g) to find a defendant not guilty in a criminal trial

8) to litigate h) to request for information, to investigate

9) to plead i) to bring criminal charges against someone

10) to witness j) to say smth happened though the fact hasn’t

been proved yet

11) to acquit k) to take a case to higher court for rehearing

and a new decision

12) to cross-examine l) to act as a legal representative in court; to

maintain by argument in the face of

opposition or criticism

13) to inquire m) to argue a case as an advocate in a court; to

make or answer an allegation in a legal

proceeding

14) to investigate n) to conduct an official inquiry to make an

examination or study

You must know that the Russian expression ^ СУДЕБНЫЙ ПРОЦЕСС has

the following equivalents in English:

    1. litigation – судебный процесс, спор, тяжба

civil litigation – судебный процесс по гражданскому делу

local litigation – тяжба в местном суде

litigation expenses – судебные издержки

issue in the litigation – предмет судебного спора

    1. lawsuit – судебный процесс, судебное дело, иск, тяжба, правовой спор, судебный спор, судебное разбирательство

to be cast in lawsuit – проиграть судебный процесс

party to a lawsuit – сторона по делу

to file a lawsuit – подать иск

    1. suit – судебный процесс, иск, преследование по суду, судебное дело, судебная тяжба, судопроизводство

to win / to lose a suit – выиграть / проиграть судебный процесс

to mount a suit – предъявить иск

to press a suit – оказывать давление на ход судебного процесса

to bring a suit – возбудить дело, тяжбу

    1. trial – судебный процесс, судебное разбирательство, слушание дела

open (-court) trial – открытый судебный процесс

to conduct / hold a trial – вести судебный процесс

staged trial – инсценированный судебный процесс

trial by jury – рассмотрение дела с участием присяжных

to bring to trial / to put (up) on trial / to place on trial – предать суду

to face trial – предстать перед судом

to stand trial – отвечать перед судом

civil trial – гражданское судопроизводство

criminal trial – уголовное судопроизводство

preliminary trial – предварительное слушание дела

case for trial / trial case – дело, подлежащее судебному рассмотрению

case on trial – дело на стадии судебного рассмотрения

delay in trial – задержка судебного разбирательства, отсрочка судебного разбирательства

trial docket / trial list – список дел к слушанию

investigation at the trial – судебное следствие

party to a trial - сторона в процессе, участник процесса

    1. cause – судебный процесс, судебное дело, тяжба

legal cause – судебное дело, законное основание

major / minor cause – дело о тяжком / малозначительном правонарушении

costs in the cause – судебные издержки, издержки в процессе

cause list – список дел к слушанию

side in a cause – сторона по делу

    1. controversy – гражданский судебный процесс, правовой спор, судебный спор

legal controversy – правовой спор, судебный спор

to decide a controversy – решить спор

party in controversy – сторона в судебном споре

    1. process – судебный процесс, процедура, порядок, производство дел, судопроизводство, процессуальные нормы

arrest process – приказ суда об аресте

    1. proceeding(s) – судебный процесс, рассмотрение дела в суде, судебное разбирательство, судебная процедура, производство по делу, судопроизводство

to take criminal proceeding(s) – возбудить уголовное преследование

civil proceeding(s) – гражданское производство

criminal proceeding(s) – уголовное судопроизводство

forfeiture proceeding(s) – процедура конфискации

Find in the list above the English equivalents for the following Russian expressions:

  1. судебные издержки

  2. сторона по делу

  3. тяжба

  4. проиграть / выиграть судебный процесс

  5. возбудить дело

6. предъявить иск

There are many Latin terms in written English legal text, although recent reforms in the English justice system have encouraged the use of English rather than Latin. Some Latin terms are used so frequently that they are in general English use (e.g. ad hoc, bona fide, pro rata etc.). It is useful to be able to recognize their meaning and a dictionary will help you. Forms of pronunciation vary.

^ Ad hoc – for this purpose

Affidavit – witnessed, signed statement

Bona fide – in good faith

Caveat – warning

De facto – in fact

De jure – by right

Et cetera (etc.) – and so on

Exempli gratia (e.g.) – for example

Ex parte (ex p.) – by a party without notice

Id est (i.e.) – that is

In camera – hearing a case in private

In cruria – in open court

In situ – in its original situation

Inter alia – among other things

Ipso facto – by the fact

Per pro – on behalf of another

Per se – by itself

Prima facie – at first sight

Pro rata – in proportion

Quasi – as if it were

Sub judice – in the course of trial

Ultra vires – beyond the power

Videlicet (viz) – namely

A number of linking terms are used in older written legal texts (case reports, legislation, court documentation, etc.) to refer to other parts of the same text, to different legal documents, or to related contexts.

Hereafter – after this

Hereby – in this way / by this

Herein – in this (document)

Hereof – of this

Hereto – to this

Herewith – with this

Notwithstanding – despite

Thereafter – after that

Thereby – in that way / by that

Therein – in that (document)

Thereof – of that

Thereto – to that

Therewith – with that


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