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|1. Some new words to the text|
2. Read properly the following names and terms
3. Read and translate the text
4. Look through the text and say in what meaning these words are used in the text
5. Find in the text the following verbs and make as many word-combinations as you can
Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions
Make up different word-combinations using the following words (A, B) and translate them
9. Make up 6 sentences and try to say each of them by heart
10. Say if it is right or wrong. Give a full answer
11. Put the letters in underlined words in the necessary order, then translate sentences
1. Some new words to the text
2. Read the text and answer the following questions
3. Find in the text above the Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions
4. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following key words and expressions
6. Read and translate the text without dictionary
7. Read, translate and reproduce the following dialogue
A: By whom are the Queen’s powers limited? B
A: Well, the legislature consists of the Queen and Parliament. And what about the executive power? B
A: And where is the residence of the Prime Minister located? B
8. Read and translate this funny text and make your own list of qualities for a model prime minister.
|Тема № 10|
Elective выборный, избирательный
Power власть, сила
To be exercised by осуществляться (чем-либо)
Separate раздельный, отдельный
To be responsible for быть ответственным за (что-либо)
To direct руководить, направлять
Local authorities местные органы власти
Particular частичный, особый
Statutory boards государственные органы
Great Britain; the Prime Minister; number 10 Downing Street; the Houses of Parliament; Westminster; Parliamentary government; the United Kingdom; government departments; ministers of the Crown; the House of Lords; the House of Commons; Anglican Church; Commonwealth..
The Bodies of Government in the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a parliamentary monarchy, with the Queen Elizabeth II, as a Head of State. The powers of Queen are hereditary, and not elective. The Queen is considered to be the supreme commander-in-chief of the armed forces, the temporal head of the Anglican Church and the head of the Commonwealth. Juridically the Queen has a lot of rights, but in fact she is only nominal chief of state, the royal powers and prerogatives are almost entirely in the hands of the Cabinet of ministers.
The government of the United Kingdom is composed of three branches: the executive one, the legislative one, and the judicial one.
The legislative power in the country is exercised by the Parliament together with the Queen. The Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. These two Houses are considered independent of each other, they are constructed on different principles, have separate residences and different powers. But in order that laws may be adopted, it is usually necessary that both Houses come to an agreement.
The executive bodies consist of 1) the Cabinet and other ministers of the Crown who are responsible for directing national policy; 2) government departments, who are responsible for administration at the national level; 3) local authorities who administer and control many services at the local level; and 4) statutory boards, who are responsible for the operation of particular nationalized industries or public services.
The highest judicial body in the English judicial system is the House of Lords.
To exercise – упражняться, тренироваться, осуществлять
A house – дом, торговая фирма, театр, палата
A branch – ветка, отрасль, филиал, ветвь
A body – тело, группа людей, организация, орган
Power - сила, энергия, власть, способность, держава
Выбирать, управлять, состоять, осуществлять, контролировать.
6. Write out the pairs of synonyms:
- глава государства
- конституционная монархия
- наследственная власть
- глава Содружества
- законодательная власть
- верховный главнокомандующий
- министры Короны
- национальная политика
- прийти к соглашению
- местные органы власти
- департаменты правительства
- высший судебный орган
House of power
Chief of authority
Ministers of state
2. Local authorities. 2. are elected by the people
3. The members of the 3. control many services at the
House of Commons local level.
4. The House of Lords 4. direct national policy
5. The powers of the Queen. 5. is exercised by the Parliament
6. The Cabinet and other ministers 6. is the highest judicial body
of the Crown
1. The British state is a federal republic.
2. There are two branches of power in the Great Britain: the legislature and the executive.
3. The legislative power in the country is exercised by the House of Lords.
4. The Cabinet and other ministers of the Crown direct national policy.
5. The members of the House of Commons are elected by the people.
6. The highest judicial body in the English judicial system is the House of Lords.
7. The powers of Queen are elective, and not hereditary.
1. Britain has a sotntintiolacu noyharcm, which means that the powers and rights of the Queen or King are limited by the basic laws and principles of the country.
2. The name of the current monarch is Queen itaelEhzb II, and she has nidgree the country since 1952.
3. Her official London residence is at miucnBaghk ealPca, but she has other residences around the country that she uses.
4. The monarch’s limited powers and rights are known as the royal pogtrevraie. However, her role is one of a egfiredhua (a leader with no real power or influence) is largely mociaereln.
5. The Queen meets and greets foreign heads of state. Each year she also opens maenrlaPti and gives the sueQn’e hpesce, in which she outlines the ielospic of the government for the coming year.
6. This speech does not express her views: it expresses the views of the meriP stinirMe and the nlguri political party.
7. The monarch must accept any decisions made by the naCited and by Parliament.
Text № 2
Treasury казна, казначейство
To run (зд.) управлять
To appoint назначать
To create создавать
To indicate указывать, показывать
To call (upon) вызывать
To initiate вводить, устанавливать
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the party that has a majority in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister is the most senior officer of Her Majesty’s Government. The full title of the office is the Prime Minister, First Lord of the Treasury, and Minister for the Civil Service of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The Prime Minister’s main responsibilities include: running the Government; appointing Cabinet Ministers and other ministers; coordinating the activities of the Cabinet and Government Departments; appointing judges, creating Life Peers and making appointments to senior positions in the Church of England; leading the majority party; being the «face» of the government in the UK and abroad.
The Prime Minister is technically appointed by the Monarch. The appointment takes place after the results of a General Election indicate which political party wins the majority of seats in the House of Commons. After a General Election, the Queen calls upon the leader of the largest party to officially appoint him to a post of a Prime Minister, who then forms the Government and the Cabinet.
The Cabinet is composed of about 20 ministers, although the number can vary. The functions of the Cabinet are to initiate and decide on policy, to exercise the supreme control of government and to coordinate Government Departments.
The Cabinet meets for a few hours each week on a Thursday morning at No. 10 Downing Street which is very near the Houses of Parliament in Westminster. The Prime Minister can summon the Cabinet to meet at any time and meetings will be more frequent when the political situation so requires. It is the Prime Minister’s duty to meet the Queen during the weekly audiences and inform her about the business of Government.
- to have a majority in the House of Commons
- the most senior officer
- First Lord of the Treasury
- to coordinate the activities of the Cabinet
- being the «face» of the government
- to officially appoint
- to initiate and decide on policy
- to exercise the supreme control of government
- for a few hours a week
- всеобщие выборы
- формировать правительство
- возглавлять партию большинства
- самый старший по должности чиновник
- руководить деятельностью правительства
- назначать на пост Премьер министра
- член (представитель) парламента
- исполнять обязанности руководителя страны
- созывать Кабинет
- обязанности Премьер министра
5. Open the brackets using the verbs in a proper form, review the Present Simple Tense:
1. The Prime Minister (to hold) Cabinet meetings at his or her house at number 10 Downing Street.
2. The Prime Minister usually (to take) policy decisions with the agreement of his Cabinet.
3. The Prime Minister (to be) usually the leader of the party that has a majority in the House of Commons.
4. The Prime Minister (to be) the most senior officer of Her Majesty’s Government.
5. After a General Election, the Queen (to appoint) the leader of the largest party to a post of a Prime Minister.
6. The Cabinet (to meet) for a few hours each week.
In theory, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is a primus inter pares (first among equals) in the British Cabinet. In appointing a Cabinet the Prime Minister generally includes members of parliament who have political bases of their own and who could potentially be rival of the Prime Minister. However, in practice, a strong Prime Minister can so dominate government that he becomes a «semi-president», and fulfils the leadership role in a country in the same way as presidents do. Examples include David Lloyd George, Winston Churchill, Margaret Thatcher, Tony Blair, Gordon Brown and David Cameron.
Two students speak about governmental structure of the UK
A: As far as I know, Great Britain is a monarchy, isn’t it?
B: Yes, but Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy. The Queen is not absolute.
^ By whom are the Queen’s powers limited?
B: They are limited by Parliament.
A: Parliament in Britain has a two-chamber structure, hasn’t it?
B: Yes, Parliament consists of two Houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
A: How often is Parliament elected?
B: The House of Commons is elected every 5 years. The membership in the House of Lords is hereditary.
^ Well, the legislature consists of the Queen and Parliament. And what about the executive power?
B: The highest executive body is the Cabinet of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister.
A: Is the Prime Minister appointed?
B: The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the party which has a majority in the House of Commons.
^ And where is the residence of the Prime Minister located?
B: The residence of the Prime Minister is at number 10 Downing Street.
A: And who does the supreme judicial power belong to?
B: The highest judicial body in the English judicial system is the House of Lords.
A: I highly appreciate your detailed replies.
B: You are welcome.
Politics are too serious a matter to be left to the politicians.
Charles de Gaulle
Politicians in Britain do not have a good reputation. To describe someone who is not a professional politician as a «politician» means to criticize him or her, just regard them with a high degree of suspicion. Here is a satirical description of a «model» top-rank politician: «… A candidate for a Prime Minister must have the following qualities: he must be malleable, flexible, likeable, have no firm opinions, no bright ideas, not be intellectually committed, and be without the strength of purpose to change anything. Above all, he must be someone who can be professionally guided, and who is willing to leave the business of government in the hands of experts».
Some people suppose that there are few women and members of the ethnic (a)________ in Parliament. In 1979, Margaret Thatcher became the first woman Prime Minister, yet she never (b)_________ a woman to her Cabinet, and until 1983 the (c)__________ of women (d)__________ to the House of Commons was under 5% . In the election in 1992, 59 women (e)__________ to the House of Commons. This total is still below the (f)_________ in other European countries.
Although the Conservatives choose few women as their candidates for the House of Commons’ seats, women are very active in the affairs of the party as a whole. The Labourists have also tried to (g)_________ to women voters by giving women (h)__________ positions. In all parties, a higher (i)___________ of women is elected to (j)___________ than the House of Commons.
10. Speak on:
1. Great Britain as a monarchy and the powers of the Queen.
2. The legislative, executive and judicial branches of power.
3. The Prime Minister and his (her) powers.
It’s interesting to know
The first Prime Minister in the history of England was Sir Robert Walpole during the reign of King George I (1714 – 1727). In fact he was filing the role of the King at Council meetings, that George with his poor grasp of English could not manage (born in Germany the King never learned English and was never happy in England, always preferring his beloved Hanover).
The term Cabinet was first used during the reign of Charles II. At that time the King used to summon a few favoured members of his Privy Council for consultations in his private apartments and such courtiers became known as members of his «Cabinet».
The official residence of the Prime Minister (PM) does not have a special name. Nor, from the outside, does it look special. It is not even a detached house! Inside, though, it is much larger than it looks. It is in this house that the Cabinet meets. The PM lives «above the shop» on the top floor. The Chancellor of the Exchequer lives next door, at No. 11, and the Government Chief Whip at No. 12, so that the whole street is a lot more important than it appears. Still there is something very domestic about this arrangement. After the government loses an election all three ministers have to throw out their rubbish and wait for the furniture vans to turn up, just like anybody else moving house.
Тема № 11
Comprise включать в себя
Upper chamber верхняя палата
Lower chamber нижняя палата
Constitute основывать, устанавливать
Safeguard охрана, защита
To scrutinize рассматривать, рассмотреть
Issue вопрос, предмет обсуждения
To attract привлекать
To deliver произносить, высказывать
To draw up составлять, выписывать
The UK Parliament
Parliament is the most important democratic institution in the United Kingdom. It comprises the House of Lords (the upper chamber), the House of Commons (the lower chamber) and the Monarch as its head. The House of Lords and the House of Commons sit separately and are constituted on entirely different principles. The legislative process involves both Houses of Parliament and the Monarch.
The main functions of Parliament are:
Parliament has a maximum duration of five years. Each term is divided into sessions, which usually last for one year – normally ending in October or November when Parliament is «prorogued», followed shortly by the State Opening of Parliament.
The State Opening of Parliament marks the start of the new parliamentary session. It is the main ceremonial event of the parliamentary year, attracting large crowds, both in person and watching on television. The Queen delivers her speech from the Throne in the House of Lords. The speech is given in the presence of members of both Houses. Although the speech is made by the Queen, the content of speech is entirely drawn up by the Government and approved by the Cabinet. It contains an outline of the Government’s policies and proposed legislative programme for the new parliamentary session. Following the State Opening, the government’s programme is debated by both Houses.
- to include
- the upper House
- to be based on principles
- law-making process
- the term of service
- to discontinue a session of the British Parliament
- to protect the rights
- to examine in much detail
- to write a speech
- to pronounce a speech
- a plan/brief review of the Government’s policies.
1. The House of Lords is the most important democratic institution in the United Kingdom.
2. Parliament comprises the House of Commons and the Senate.
3. The executive process involves both Houses of Parliament and the Monarch.
4. Parliament has a maximum duration of five years.
5. The State Opening of Parliament marks the end of the new parliamentary session.
6. The speech is given in the presence of members only of the House of Lords.
7. The House of Lords and the House of Commons sit together and are constituted on similar principles.
7. Guess the words:
1. Britain’s main law maker.
2. Someone who has a job in politics.
3. The head of the British government.
4. A group of members of a government.
5. The basic law of a country.
6. A country ruled by a king or queen.
The Major Political Parties
British parliamentary democracy has traditionally been dominated by the two-party system, with two main parties forming the government and the official Opposition. Over the years these have been Whigs and Tories, i.e. Liberals and Conservatives and, since the development of the Labour Party at the beginning of the 20th century, Labour and Conservatives. A number of other parties have also won seats in Parliament.
Nowadays there are three major national political parties in the United Kingdom. They are:
Observe the topic about UK government and UK Parliament
9. Complete the following text with the verbs from the box, using them in the appropriate form (active or passive).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy. This means that Great Britain (1) is governed by Parliament and the Queen is Head of State.
The legislative power in the country (2) … by the House of Parliament. The British parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The executive power (3) … by the Prime Minister and his Cabinet. The government (4) … usually … by the political party which (5) … by the majority in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister is the majority party leader and (6) … by the Queen. The Prime Minister chooses a team of ministers; twenty of the ministers are in the Cabinet.
The second largest party (7) … the official opposition with its own leader and the Shadow Cabinet. The two leading parties in Great Britain are the Conservative Party (the Tories) and the Labour Party.
The judiciary branch of the government (8) … common law and is independent of both the legislative and the executive branches.
There is no written constitution in Great Britain, only precedents and traditions.
1. The Chairman in the House of Commons of Great Britain is the …
a)Clerk of the House; b) Lord Chancellor; c) Prime Minister; d) Speaker;
2. The collective decision making body of Her Majesty’s Government in the UK, composed of the Prime Minister and some 22 Cabinet Ministers is called ---
3. A British Prime Minister know chiefly for his leadership of the United Kingdom during World War II is …
4. The term of the … has a maximum duration of five years
a) Parliament of New Zealand
b) United States Congress
c) Parliament of Australia
d) British Parliament
5. The leader of the party that has a majority in the House of Commons
a) Lord Chancellor; b) Prime Minister; c) Speaker; d)Her Majesty
6. The highest judicial body in the English judicial system is …
a) House of Lords; b) British Parliament; c) the Cabinet ; d) Ministry of Justice of the UK
7. The powers of Queen are limited by …
a) House of Commons; b) the Cabinet; c) Parliament; d) the Shadow Cabinet
8. The Prime Minister usually takes policy decisions with the agreement of his …
a) Cabinet; b) Lord Chancellor; c) House of Commons; d) Parliament
9. The … is technically appointed by the Monarch
a) Speaker; b) Minister of Justice; c)Home officer; d) Prime Minister
10. The … is composed of hereditary and life peers and peeresses
a) House of Lords; b) House of Commons; c) Parliament; d)Home Office.
11. Complete the following text with the words and expressions from the box.
Middleford Election Result. No. of registered voters: 100,000
Mr. G. Smith (Labour) 30,000 votes
Mrs. R. Green (Conservative) 25,000 votes
Miss L. Jones (Independent) 10,000 votes
Mr. W. Woods (Communist) 5,000 votes
A (a)________ has just taken place all over the United Kingdom, These must take place every five years unless the Prime Minister decides to (b)___________ earlier. Above is the result in Middleford, one of the approximately 650 (c)__________ into which the country is divided for this purpose. (d)_________ was last Thursday, when the election (e)_________ and door-to-door (f) stopped and the people of Middleford went to the (g)__________ to make their choice, in a (h)_________, from the four candidates (anyone over the age of 21 can (i)__________.Voting is not compulsory and the number of people (j)_________ to vote in Middleford (everyone over 18) was 100,000, so the (k)_________was 70 per cent. Now Mr. Smith will become the (l)_________ for Middleford, which means he will represent the people of Middleford in the (m)________ in London. If he should die or be forced to give up his seat, the people of Middleford will have to vote again, in a (n)_________ to replace him. It is a very simple system and Mr. Smith will try to represent all his (o)________ fairly, whether they voted for him or not. However, the fact remains that most voters in Middleford voted for candidates (and parties) other than Mr. Smith, and their votes are now lost. It is seats which are important in Parliament, not votes, and it is easy to see why smaller parties would like a system of (p)___________, in which the number of votes they won was reflected in the number of seats they received in Parliament.
The House of Commons
This is the House of Commons, where Members of Parliament take their seats on the green leather (a)________according to their party and position. One of them is chosen to be the (b)________, who acts as a kind of chairman of the (c)_________ which take place in the House. In from of him on his right sit the MPs of the biggest party, which forms the government, and facing them sit the MPs of the parties who oppose them, the (d)___________. The leaders of these two groups sit at the front on each side. MPs without special positions in their parties sit behind their parties sit behind their leaders at the back. They are called (e)____________.
The leader of government, the (f)____________, sits on the government (g)______, of course, next to his or her (h)___________. The most important of these form the (i)______________. The minister responsible for relations with other countries is called the (j)___________. The one responsible for law and security is called the (k)____________. The one who deals with financial matters and prepares the annual (i)__________ speech on the economic state of the country is called the (m)____________. Opposite this group sits the (n)________ (the main person in the largest party opposing the government) and the (o)__________, each member of which specializes in a particular area of government.
In most countries, except (a)_________, there are several different political parties. The one with the (b)_________ of seats normally forms the government, and the parties which are against the government are called (c)________. Sometimes no single party wins enough seats, and several parties must combine together in a (d)__________ to form a government. The principal ministers in the government from a group are called the (e)________. The leader of this group, and of the government, is the (f)________. Of course, there are many different kinds of parties and governments. A socialist or communist party is often described as (g)_______. A conservative party on the other hand, is usually said to be (h)_________. Political situations are always changing. Sometimes in a party or between two parties there is a big argument or deep difference of opinion. This is called a (i)__________. When, on the other hand, two parties work together, this is sometimes called an (j)___________.
It’s interesting to know
Parliamentary Oath: «I … swear by Almighty God that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, her heirs and successors, according to law. So help me God».
Members of both Housed of Parliament are required by law to take an oath of allegiance to the Crown on taking their seat in Parliament. Until the oath/affirmation is taken, a Member may not sit in the House or vote, and may not receive salary or make use of the facilities of the House.
To hear the Queen’s speech at the State Opening of Parliament the Commons are summoned by an official known as «Black Rod». In a symbol of the Commons’ independence, the door to their chamber is slammed in his face and not opened until he has knocked on the door with his staff of office.
Before the State Opening, the cellars of the Palace of Westminster are to this day searched by the Yeomen of the Guard – a precaution dating back to the Gunpowder Plot of November 1605.
1. Read the text.
In theory, the constitution has three branches: Parliament, which makes laws, the government, which «executes» laws, i.e. puts them into effect, and the law courts, which interpret laws. Although the Queen is officially head of all three branches, she has little direct power.
Parliament has two parts: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Members of the House of Commons are elected by the voters of 650 constituencies. They are known as MPs, or Members of Parliament. The Prime Minister , or leader of the Government , is also an MP, usually the leader of the political party with a majority in the House of Commons.
The Prime Minister is advised by a Cabinet of about twenty other ministers. The Cabinet includes the ministers in charge of major government departments or ministers. Departments and ministries are run by civil servants , who are permanent officials. Even if the Government changes after an election, the same civil servants are employed.
The House of Lords consists of Lords Temporal and the Lords Spiritual. The Lords Spiritual are the Archbishops of York and Canterbury, together with twenty-for senior bishops of the Church of England. The Lords Temporal consist of hereditary peers who have inherited their titles; life peers who are appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Government for various services to the nation; and the Lords of Appeal (Law Lords) who become life peers on their judicial appointments. The latter serve the House of Lords as the ultimate court of appeal. This appeal court consists of some nine Law Lords who hold senior judicial office. They are presided over by the Lord Chancellor and they form a quorum of there to five when they hear appeal cases.
1. Read the text.
Making New Laws: Bills and Acts
The functions of Parliament are: making laws; providing money for the government through taxation; examining government policy, administration and spending; debating political questions.
Every year Parliament passes about a hundred laws directly, by making Acts of Parliament. Because this can be a long process, Parliament sometimes passes a very general law and leaves a minister to fill in the details. In this way, it indirectly passes about 2,000 additional rules and regulations.
No new law can be passed unless it has completed a number of stages in the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The monarch also has to give a Bill of Royal Assent, which is now just a formality. Since 1707 no sovereign has refused a Bill. Whit a law is still going through Parliament it is called a Bill. There are two main types of Bills-Public Bills which deal with matters of public importance and Private Bills which deal with local matters and individuals.
Public and Private Bills are passed through Parliament in much the same way. When a Bill is introduced in the House of Commons, it receives a formal first reading. It is then printed and read a second time, when it is debated but not amended. After the second reading the Bill is referred to a committee, either a special committee made up of certain members of the House, or to the House itself as a committee. Here it is discussed in detail and amended, if necessary. The Bill is them presented for a third reading and is debated. If the Bill is passed by the Commons it goes to the Lords, and provided it is not rejected by them, it goes through the same procedure as in the Commons. After receiving the Royal Assent the Bill becomes an Act of Parliament. In order to be enforced, it must be published in Stature form, becoming a part of Stature Law. The power of the Lords to reject a Bill has been severely curtailed. A money Bill must be passed by the Lords without amendment within a month of being presented in the House. The Act of 1949 provides that any Public Bill passed by the Commons in two successive parliamentary sessions and rejected both times by the Lords, may be presented for the Royal Assent, even though it has not been passed by the Lords. The Lords, therefore, can only delay the passage of a Public Bill, they cannot reject it.
-внести поправку в законопроект;
-обсуждать политические вопросы;
-ассигновать деньги для нужд правительства;
-направить законопроект на рассмотрение;
-отложить принятие законопроекта;
-to be published in Stature form;
-to receive a formal reading;
-to enforce an Act of Parliament;
-to be severely curtailed;
-a money Bill.
The Home (Foreign) Office;
-вступать в должность;
-осуществлять политику правительства;
Members of Parliament in Great Britain
Each Member of Parliament (MP) represents one of 650 constituencies in the UK. British elections are usually fought between political parties, not individuals. Therefore, people who want to be elected to be elected to Parliament need to be nominated by one of main political parties.
There is nothing to stop unconventional candidates from standing for election, however. A candidate has only to put down a deposit of 500 pounds and collect ten signatures from residents in the constituency where he wants to stand. A candidate who gets less than 5 per cent of the total votes loses his deposit. For somebody who is standing for election for publicity purposes, this is a small prize to pay.
Although MPs will support a particular party, they are not controlled by that political party and theoretically do not have to vote with their party in Parliament. MPs represent everyone in the constituency, not just the people who voted for them.
A lot of MPs’ work has nothing to do with voting in Parliament. There are hundreds of things MPs have to deal with in the day-to-day business of constituency life, such as housing or health care. MPs are there to help people and to try to make sure their rights under the law are not violated.
Some MPs hold an advice bureau in their constituencies, where people can go for advice. Anyone who feels that he has been unfairly treated by the central government can complain to their local MP who will do his best to see that the problem is solved.
Members of Parliament have been paid salaries since 1911. The rate has lately been nearly twice the average industrial worker’s wages. Since 1965 the allowances for travel, living in London; and paying part-time secretaries and research assistants, have all been increased. Still many MPs insist that they need to have outside earnings, through journalism, work in the law courts or business, to enable them to live up to the standard they expect.
-обращаться за советом;
-баллотироваться в своём избирательном округе;
-выдвинуть свою кандидатуру на партии;
-участвовать в избирательной компании в рекламных целях;
-средняя зарплата рабочего;
-несправедливо обойтись с кем либо.
Read the texts.
«Her Most Excellent Majesty Elizabeth the Second by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith».
The Queen is the official Head of State and, for many people, a symbol of the unity of the nation. For a thousand years England (and later the whole of the United Kingdom) has been united under one sovereign, a continuity broken only after the Civil War, by the republic of 1649 to 1660. The hereditary principle still operates and the Crown I passed on the sovereign’s eldest son (or daughter if there are no sons).
The Queen has a central role in state affairs, not only through her ceremonial functions, such as opening Parliament, but also because she meets the Prime Minister every week and receives copies of all Cabinet papers. However, she is expected to be impartial or «above politics», and any advice she may offer the Prime Minister is kept secret.
-opening and closing Parliament;
-approving the appointment of the Prime minister;
-giving her Royal Assent to bills;
-giving honours such as peerages, knighthoods and medals;
-Head of the Commonwealth;
-Head of the Church of England;
-Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.
The Queen Elizabeth 2 is the official Head of State and for many people she is a symbol of unity of the nation.
Queen Elizabeth 2 is not only the monarch of the United Kingdom but also of Australia, Canada and New Zealand, as well as many other countries in the Commonwealth (an association of States that were once ruled by Britain). She is also Head of the Church of England. However, the Queen has almost no power to influence the church.
As Head of the Commonwealth, the Queen has more freedom from the government. When the Queen was growing up, the British Empire still had colonies, and she watched as they became independent members of the Commonwealth. She has met and knows the leaders of these countries. Although she has no executive powers as Head of the Commonwealth, she takes her role very seriously. However, Britain is now a member of the European Community and is moving away from its links with the Commonwealth. In addition, people in some of the major Commonwealth countries, such as Australia and Canada, wonder if they should be connected to a monarch so far away.
Queen Elizabeth 2 is married to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburg. The heir to the throne is Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales.
The Queens other children are Princess Anne, Prince Andrew and Prince Edward. This group is usually called the royal family, together with Queen Elizabeth’s mother – the Queen Mother who died in 2002 at the age of 101.
The Queens power is limited by Parliament but every week she meets the Prime Minister and receives copies of the all cabinet papers.
Elizabeth is the head of the executive, of the judicial power and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the U.K. She also has to fulfill her ceremonial functions such as opening of Parliament, for example.
The legal system in the United Kingdom (UK)
The study of law distinguishes between public law and private law, but in legal practice in the UK the distinction between civil law and criminal law is more important to practising lawyers. Public law relates to the state. It is concerned with laws which govern processes in local and national government and conflicts between the individual and the state in areas such as immigration and social security. Private law is concerned with the relationships between legal persons, that is, individuals and corporations, and includes family law, contract law and property law. Criminal law deals with certain forms of conduct for which the state reserves punishment, for example murder and theft. The state prosecutes the offender. Civil law concerns relationships between private persons, their rights, and their duties. It is also concerned with conduct which may give rise to a claim by a legal person for compensation or an injunction - an order made by the court. However, each field of law tends to overlap with others. For example, a road accident case may lead to a criminal prosecution as well as a civil action for compensation.
Substantive law creates, defines or regulates rights, liabilities, and duties
in all areas of law and is contrasted with procedural law, which defines the procedure by which a law is to be enforced.
The head of state is the monarch, currently the Queen in the UK, but the government carries the authority of the Crown (the monarch). The Westminster Parliament has two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons, which sit separately and are constituted on different principles. The Commons is an elected body of members. Substantial reform is being carried out in the upper house, the House of Lords, where it is proposed that the majority of members be appointed, with a minority elected, replacing the hereditary peers. There is no written constitution, but constitutional law consists of statute law (see Unit 2), common law (see Unit 3),and constitutional conventions.
There are four countries and three distinct jurisdictions in the United Kingdom: England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. All share a legislature in the Westminster Parliament for the making of new laws and have a common law tradition, but each has its own hierarchy of courts, legal rules and legal profession. Wales and Northern Ireland each have their own Assembly and since 1999 Scottish Members of Parliament (SMPs) have sat in their own Parliament. Under an Act of the Westminster Parliament, the Scottish Parliament has power to legislate on any subject not specifically reserved to the Westminster Parliament such as defence or foreign policy. The UK's accession to the European Communities in 1973, authorised by the European Communities Act 1972, has meant the addition of a further legislative authority in the legal system. The UK is also a signatory of the European Convention of Human Rights and this has been incorporated into UK law.
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