Учебное пособие по английскому языку краснодар 2012 Печатается по решению



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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ВНУТРЕННИХ ДЕЛ

РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ


КРАСНОДАРСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ


Учебное пособие

по английскому языку


1 курс 2 семестр


КРАСНОДАР

2012

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ВНУТРЕННИХ ДЕЛ

РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ


КРАСНОДАРСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ


Учебное пособие

по английскому языку


КРАСНОДАР

2012

Печатается по решению

редакционно-издательского совета

Краснодарского университета МВД России


Рецензенты:

В.В. Катермина, доктор филологических наук, профессор кафедры английской филологии факультета РГФ Кубанского государственного университета.

^ И.В. Мятченко, кандидат филологических наук, доцент, зав. кафедрой русского и иностранных языков Краснодарского университета МВД России.


Составитель: С.В. Кулинская, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры русского и иностранных языков (Краснодарский университет МВД России).


Учебное пособие является одним из циклов учебно-методических материалов, предназначенных для обучения английскому языку курсантов, слушателей, студентов, обучающихся по специальностям 030901.65 – правовое обеспечение национальной безопасности и 031001.65 – правоохранительная деятельность.

Пособие позволяет овладеть специальной лексикой, узнать об истории и функционировании государственных, политических и судебных структур России, Великобритании и США.


Предлагаемое учебное пособие предназначено для обучения английскому языку курсантов, слушателей, студентов 2 курса, обучающихся по специальностям 030901.65 – правовое обеспечение национальной безопасности и 031001.65 – правоохранительная деятельность и рассчитано на 70 часов практических занятий.

Пособие строится согласно тематическому плану и рассматривает основные элементы государственных, правовых и судебных структур России, Великобритании и США. Основная цель пособия – обеспечить практическое владение обучающихся всеми видами речевой деятельности по данным темам.

В пособие включены современные профессионально-ориентированные материалы из правовых источников Великобритании и США, которые позволяют овладеть специальной лексикой, узнать о функционировании судебных структур данных стран, о работе полиции Великобритании и США, а также развить столь необходимые для юриста навыки анализа текста и ведения дискуссии. Каждая тема включает тексты для изучающего и синтетического чтения, а так же грамматический и лексический материал, обрабатываемый дифференцированно (для устной речи и чтения). Должное внимание уделяется коммуникативным упражнениям, которые включают:

- подстановочные упражнения, целью которых является правильное коммуникативное использование готовых вариантов;

- ситуационно обусловленные коммуникативные упражнения на завершение ситуации, аргументирование, выражения своего отношения и т.д.;

- упражнения, стимулирующие свободное высказывание, а также задания, которые требуют многократного обращения к тексту.

Данное пособие содержит тематический словарь, тексты для основного чтения и тексты для дополнительного чтения, а также грамматический раздел.


Оглавление:

Раздел I.

Тема 8. Исполнительная ветвь власти США. Президент и его кабинет -------6

Тема 9. Конгресс США------------------------------------------------------------------ 14

Supplementary Reading -----------------------------------------------------------------18

Тема 10. Правительство Великобритании.

Премьер-министр Великобритании ----------------------------------29

Текст 1. The Bodies of Government in the United Kingdom ------------29

Текст 2. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom----------------------35

Тема 11. Парламент Великобритании-----------------------------------------40

Supplementary Reading -----------------------------------------------------------------49

Тема 12. Государственное устройство РФ-------------------------------------------58

^ Тематический словарь к темам № 13, 14------------------------------------------63

Тема 13. Судебная система Великобритании ---------------------------------------74

Supplementary Reading -----------------------------------------------------------91

Тема 14. Судебная система США -----------------------------------------------------99

Supplementary Reading ---------------------------------------------------------108

^ Раздел II.

Грамматика ------------------------------------------------------------------124

Simple Tenses -----------------------------------------------------------------124

Continuous Tenses ------------------------------------------------------------132

Perfect Tenses -----------------------------------------------------------------137

Типы вопросов ---------------------------------------------------------------143

Словообразование -----------------------------------------------------------149

Пассивный Залог ------------------------------------------------------------151

Сложные предложения с придаточным условия и времени --------157

Согласование времен. Косвенная речь----------------------------------159

^ Test Review ------------------------------------------------------------------------------164

Вопросы к зачету--------------------------------------------------------------180

Литература --------------------------------------------------------------------182


Тема № 8

Исполнительная ветвь власти США.

^ Президент и его кабинет.

1. Some new words to the text:

Amendment поправка

Government правительство

Branch отрасль, ветвь

Executive исполнительный

Legislative законодательный

Judicial судебный

To elect выбирать

Election выборы

Resident житель

To carry out выполнять

To enforce a law проводить закон в жизнь

To negotiate вести переговоры

To conduct проводить

To pardon помиловать

To appoint назначать

Ambassador посол

Representative представитель

To override не принять во внимание

To (dis)approve (не)одобрять

Chamber палата

To sign подписывать

To try разбирать (в судебном порядке)


^ 2. Read and translate the text:

Us government and the President

By the Constitution of 1787 (and the amendments to it) the government of the USA is composed of three branches: the executive one, the legislative one, and the judicial one.

The highest executive power in the United States is vested in the President of the United States, who is elected for a term of 4 years by electors of each state. The Presidential election is held every four year in November. The President of the USA must be a native born citizen, resident in the country for 14 years and at least 35 years old.

The President is to carry out the programmes of the Government, to recommend much of the legislation to the Congress.

The President is also responsible for:

  • carrying out and enforcing laws made by Congress;

  • nominating people for federal offices;

  • negotiating treaties with other nations;

  • conducting wars.

In addition, the President is given the power:

  • to pardon people convicted of crimes;

  • to send and receive ambassadors to and from other countries.

Veto. The president shares in the legislative power through veto. Although the president can veto a bill passed by Congress, the bill can still become a law if two-thirds of both houses of Congress vote to override the veto.

Appointments. The power to appoint executive branch officials and federal judges is shared with Congress. The president has the power to nominate persons to fill those positions, but the Senate has the right to approve or disapprove of the persons nominated. To prevent corruption of Congress, members of Congress are not allowed to hold another federal office.

The legislative power belongs to the Congress of the United States consisting of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate is composed of two members from each state elected for a term of 6 years, one third being elected every two years. The number of representatives from each state to the House of Representatives depends on the number of people in each particular state.

In order to become a law all bills and resolutions must pass both the Houses and must be signed by the President.

The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the United States and the head of the judicial branch of power. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the USA and a number of Associate Justices.

There are about 90 district courts in the different parts of the USA. The district courts are lowest ones in the Federal court system. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by these courts.


^ 3. Read and translate the international words without dictionary:

Civil, constitution, Congress, criminal, control, department, Senate, bills, resolution, President, resident, programmes, system, to recommend, secretaries.

4. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

- по конституции 1787 года и поправкам к ней

- исполнительная ветвь власти

- президентские выборы

- Конгресс США

- Палата Представителей

- на срок 4 года

- выполнять программу

- помиловать осужденных

- послы в другие страны

- для того, чтобы стать законом

- Верховный судья

- разбирать в судебном порядке уголовные и гражданские дела.


^ 5. Make up as many different word-combinations as you can with the next verbs:

to carry out

to appoint

to elect

to negotiate

to pardon

to sign

to pass

to try


^ 6. Make up different word-combinations using the following words (A, B) and translate them:

A B

Government judges

Presidential case

Native-born power

Federal representatives

Executive departments

House of citizen

Supreme election

Criminal court


^ 7. Give the corresponding verbs of the same root from the following nouns. Translate them:

Government, legislation, election, appointment, recommendation, head, trial, composition, resolution, dependence.


8. Confirm or deny the statements using the following phrases:

It’s right…

Quite so…

I quite agree with it…

I don’t agree with it…

Excuse me but…

On the contrary…

I am afraid it’s not quite so…

1. The government of the USA is composed of three branches.

2. The legislative power is vested in the President.

3. The US President must be 40 years old.

4. The US President carries out and enforces laws made by Congress.

5. In order to become a law all bills and resolutions must only be signed by the President.

6. The Supreme Court is the head of executive branch of power in the United States of America.

7. The district courts are the highest ones in the Federal court system.


^ 9. Read the sentences completing them according to the text:

1. By the Constitution of 1787 (and the amendments to it) the government of the USA is composed of ….

2. The highest executive power in the United States is vested in the President of the United States, who is elected for a term of …

3. … must be a native born citizen, resident in the country for … and at least … years old.

4. … shares in the legislative power through veto.

5. The legislative power belongs to … consisting of two chambers: … and …

6. In order to become a law all bills and resolutions must ….

7. There are about … district courts in the different parts of the USA.


^ 10. Read and translate the sentences paying attention to the pronoun one:

1. The government of the USA is composed of three branches: the executive one, the legislative one, and the judicial one.

2. The district courts are lowest ones in the Federal court system.

3. One can say that lobbyists in the American legislation are more influential than the Congressmen.

4. The USA is divided into 50 states; each one has its own constitution.

5. One should say that politics in the USA as in many other countries is «a commercial enterprise as any other one».

6. In many countries the more money one can pay, the better lawyer one can have.


^ 11. Revise Grammar: change the sentences using Passive Voice.

Model: The district court try most of the criminal and civil cases.

Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by the district court.

1. The executive, legislative and judicial branches of power compose the government of the USA.

2. A Federal Court of Appeals serves each judicial circuit.

3. So-called «lobbyist» play an important role in the American legislation.

4. Electors from each state elect the President of the USA.

5. The President recommends much of the legislation to the Congress.

6. The President appoints Federal Judges, ambassadors to other countries.


^ 12. Read, translate and reproduce he dialogue.

Two students speak about executive branch of power in the USA.

A: The President is the head of the executive branch of power, isn’t he?

B: That’s right.

A: What term of office is the President elected for?

^ B: For a term of 4 years. He may be reelected but no longer than for two terms.

A: Who can be elected a President?

B: Any native-born citizen at least 35 years old and a resident of the country for 14 years can.

A: What are the President’s functions?

B: The President is empowered to recommend legislation to the Congress, he appoints Federal Judges, heads of government departments, ambassadors to other countries and so on.

^ 13. Complete the following text with the words and phrases from the box, using them in the appropriate form

voter; responsibility; to govern;

to name; violation; to be elected (2)

to be appointed; to be removed from office

All government in the USA is «of, by and for people». Members of Congress, the President, state officials and those who (a)___ counties and cities (b) __ by popular vote. The President (c) ___ the heads of federal departments while judges are either (d) ___ directly by the people or (e) ___ by elected officials. (f)___ mark unsigned ballots in private booths, so that no one else can find out for whom a citizen (g)__. Public officials may (i) __ for failing to perform their duties properly, as well as for serious (j) ___ of law.

^ 14. Answer the following questions:

1. What branches is the government of the USA composed of?

2. Who does the highest executive power in the USA belong to?

3. What kind of person must the President of the USA be?

4. What are some of the functions of the President?

5. Who is the legislative power vested in?

6. How many chambers does the Congress consist of?

7. What must all bills and resolutions pass in order to become a law?

8. What is the head of judicial branch of power?

9. Where are most of the criminal and civil cases tried?

15. Retell the text with the help of the table.

US Government

Branch

Member

How chosen

Term

Powers

1

legislative (Congress)-

2

Senate (Two senators from each state)


3

State election

4

6

years

5

-Writes new laws.

-Sets federal taxes.

-Approves Presidential appointments.

-Overrules Presidential vetoes.

-Approves treaties.

-Declares war.

-Impeaches the President.




House of Representatives (Numbers of Representatives varies according to state population)

State election

2

years




Executive

President

national election

4

years

-Enforces federal laws.

-Appoints and remove high federal officials.

-Commands the armed forces.

-Conducts foreign affairs.

-Recommends laws to Congress.

-Approves or vetoes new laws.




Executive Departments

Presidential appointment

No set term

-Conducts the administration of the national government




Independent Agencies

Presidential appointment

No set term

Oversees government regulations

Judicial

Supreme Court Nine Justices

Presidential appointment

Life

-Interprets laws according to the Constitution.

-May declare actions of the Executive and Legislative branches unconstitutional




Lower federal Courts

Presidential appointment

Life

-Decides cases that involve the Constitution and federal laws


Тема №9

Конгресс США


^ 1. Some new words to the text:

District район, округ

Election выборы

To win выигрывать, побеждать

Winner победитель

Compromise компромисс

Tax налог

To set устанавливать

Naturalization акклиматизация

Declare объявить, заявить


^ 2. Read and translate the text

Congress

Congress, the legislative branch of the federal government, is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are 100 Senators, two from each state. One third of the Senators are elected every two years for six-year terms of office. A senator must be at least 30 years old, a citizen of the United States for 9 years, and live in the state he or she represents.

The House of Representatives has 435 members. They are elected every two years for two-year terms. They represent the population of «congressional districts» into which each sate is divided. A representative must be at least 25 years old, a citizen for 7 years, and live in the state. The number of Representatives from each state is based upon its population. For instance, California, the state with the largest population, has 45 Representatives, while Delaware has one. There is no limit to the number of terms a Senator or a Representative may serve.

Almost all elections in the United States follow the «winner-take-all» principle: the candidate who wins the largest number of votes in a Congressional district is the winner.

Congress makes all laws, and each house of Congress has the power to introduce legislation. Each can also vote against legislation passed by the other. Because legislation only becomes law if both houses agree, compromise between them is necessary. Congress decides upon taxes and how money is spent. The Congress can also declare war. And the House of Representatives can also impeach the President. This means that the House can charge the President with a crime. In addition, Congress regulates commerce among the states and with foreign countries. It also sets rules for the naturalization of foreign citizens.


^ 3. Translate the following word-combinations:

- «congressional districts»

- almost all elections

- «winner-take-all» principle

- six-year terms

- a citizen of the United States

- the number of representatives

- the largest number of votes

- foreign citizens.


4. Make up as many different word-combinations as you can with the next verbs:

- to make

- to introduce

- to vote against

- to become

- to declare

- to impeach

- to set .


^ 5. Translate from Russian into English using the information of the text above:

Законодательная ветвь власти, состоять из, создавать законы, голосовать против, объявлять войну, обвинить в каком-либо преступлении, налоги, подвергнуть президента импичменту.


^ 6. Complete the sentences according to the text:

1. Congress is made up of … and … ….

2. One third of the Senators are elected … … … for six-year terms of office.

3. The House of Representatives has … … .

4. The number of Representatives from each state is based upon … .

5. Each house of Congress has the power … … .

6. Congress also sets rules for the naturalization of foreign … .


^ 7. How can you call in one word:

a) a member of a congress;

b) a member of a senate.


8. Here is the definition of the word. Guess the meaning:

is the highest law-making body of the US, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives.


^ 9. Complete the following text by translating the words or expressions in brackets.

The (законодательная ветвь) - (конгресс) – consists of the (Сенат) and the (Палата Представителей). Each (сенатор) is elected for six years and each (представитель) for two years, with no limitation on the number of (сроков).

Each of the 50 states elects two (сенатор) under a system in which one-third of the (Сенат) is elected every two years. A (сенатор) must be (старше) 30 years old and must have been an American citizen for (по меньшей мере) years.

The (Палата Представителей) has 435 members. Each state is divided into congressional districts of roughly (равное) population, and the (избиратели) of each district elect one (представитель) to (Конгресс). A member must be (старше) 25 years of age and must have been an American citizen for at least seven years.

Both (палата) of (Конгресс) must (одобрить) bills before they become law. The (Сенат) alone (утверждает) the President’s (кандидаты) for high-level official positions and (ратифицирует) treaties with other nations.


^ 10. Read, translate and reproduce the following dialogue:

Two students speak about the US state structure before the lesson

A: Can you tell me, what is the legislative body in the USA?

B: It’s US Congress.

A: Does it consist of two or three chambers?

B: Congress is composed of two chambers: Senate and the House of Representatives

A: What is the number of Congressmen?

B: The Senate consists of 2 members from each state. The number of Representatives in the House depends on the people in each particular state.

A: And how are laws adopted?

B: In order to become a law all bills must pass both the Houses and must be signed by the President.


^ 11. Retell the text about US Congress.


Supplementary Reading


Text №1

The President and Federal Departments

The President of the United State is elected every four years to a four years term of office, with no more than two full terms allowed. As is true with Senators and Representatives, The president is elected directly by the voters (through state electors). In other words, the political party with the most Senators and Representatives does not choose the President. This means that the President can be from one party, and the majority of those in House of Representatives or Senate (or both) from another. This is not uncommon.

Thus, although one of the parties may a majority in the midterm

Elections (those held every two years), the President remains President remains President, even though his party may not have a majority in either house. Such a result could easily hurt his ability to get legislation through Congress, which must pass all laws, but this is not necessarily so. In any case, the President’s policies must be approved by the House of Representative and the Senate before they can become law. In domestic as well as in foreign policy, the President can seldom count upon the automatic support of Congress, even when his own party has a majority in both the Senate and the House. Therefore, he must be able to convince Congressmen, the Representatives and Senators, of his point of view. He must bargain and compromise. This is a major difference between the American system and those in which the nation’s leader represents the majority party or parties, that is parliamentary system.

Within the Executive Branch, there are a number of executive departments. Currently these are the departments of State, Treasury, Defence, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labour, Health and Human Resources, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, and Education. Each department is established by law, and, as their names indicate, each is responsible for a specific area. The head of each departments is appointed by the President. These appointments, however, must be approved by the Senate. None of these Secretaries, as the department heads are usually called can also be serving in Congress or in another part of the government. Each is directly responsible to the President and only serves as long as the President wants him or her to. They can best be seen, therefore, as Presidential assistants and advisers. When they meet together, they are termed «the President’s Cabinet». Some Presidents have relied quite a bit on their Cabinets for advice, and some very little.


^ 1. Explain the meanings of the following words and expressions from the text. Make sentences with each of them

  • Midterm elections;

  • Term of office;

  • Senator;

  • Representative;

  • Congressman;

  • Parliamentary system of government;

  • Executive departments;

  • The President’s Cabinet.



^ 2. Complete the following text by translating the words and expressions in brackets:

The President of the United States in chosen in a national election for a four-year (пребывание у власти), and may be (переизбран) for a second (срок). He must be a native-born citizen at least 35 years old. His salary is $200,000 a year, and he also gets an extra $50,000 for expenses; but he must pay (подоходный налог) on the whole amount. He receives up to $100,000 tax-free for travel and $20,000 for official entertainment, and is provided with a home and extensive office space at the White House.

As head of the Executive Branch, the President must (выполнять) the government programmes (принятые) by Congress. He recommends programmes and laws to Congress and requests money for federal government operations. If a President «vetoes» or refuses to sign a bill passed by the Congress, his (вето) may be (отменено) by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress. The President (назначает) federal (судьи), (послы) and hundreds of government (чиновники), and assigns duties to the elected Vice President. If a President dies, (уходит в отставку) or becomes permanently disabled, the Vice President (принимает на себя его обязанности) until the next election.

Under the US Constitution a sitting President may be (смещён с должности) before his term expires only by an impeachment process that begins with the House of Representatives. If upon sufficient evidence, the House drafts a «bill of impeachment», which must be (одобрен) by two thirds of its membership, (Судебный процесс) in the Senate, with the Chief Justice of the United States acting as the judge and the Senator as the jury, follows. Only one American President has ever been impeached: Andrew Johnson, who was (судим и оправдан) in 1868. But 1974 saw an equally historic confrontation arising out of the «Watergate» affair, which centered on illegal campaign contributions and involved (высокопоставленные государственные чиновники), including President Richard Nixon. Before a trail could take place, however, President Nixon (подал в отставку), and Gerald R. Ford, then Vice President, (сменил) him. The translation was quick and orderly as the business of the nation went on.

^ 3. Answer the questions:

  1. How many terms may a Senator or a Representative serve?

  2. Which house of Congress has the power to introduce laws?

  3. Name at least three functions of Congress.

  4. Does the President always belong to the party which has the majority in Congress?

  5. What is the major difference of the American system of government from parliamentary ones?

  6. Name at least three functions of the President?

  7. Who succeeds the President if he dies or resigns?

  8. Under what circumstances can the President be removed from office before his term expires?

  9. Who does the President’s Cabinet consist of?


Text№ 2

The American System of Government

The governmental systems in the United States - federal, state, county, and local - are quite easy to understand, that is, if you grew up with them and studied them in school. One foreign expert complained, for example, that the complexity of just the cities' political and governmental structure is "almost unbelievable." The "real Chicago," he explained ", spreads over 2 states, 6 counties, 10 towns, 30 cities, 49 townships, and 110 villages. Overlaid upon this complex pattern are 235 tax districts and more than 400 school districts..."

There are, however, several basic principles which are found at all levels of American government. One of these is the "one person, one vote" principle which says that legislators are elected from geographical districts directly by the voters. Under this principle, all election districts must have about the same number of residents.

Another fundamental principle of American government is that because of the system of checks and balances, compromise in politics is a matter of necessity, not choice. For example, the House of Representatives controls spending and finance, so the President must have its agreement for his proposals and programmes. He cannot declare war, either, Without the approval of Congress. In foreign affairs, he is also strongly limited. Any treaty must first be approved by the Senate. If there is no approval, there's no treaty. The rule is "the President proposes, but Congress disposes." What a President wants to do, therefore, is often a different thing from what a President is able to do.

^ 1. Complete the following text with the verbs from the box, using them in the appropriate form.

to divide;

to manage;

to warrant;

to be based on;

to follow;

to provide;

to track down;

to deal with;

to cross;

to be put;

to be enforced;

to involve;

to break;

to be established;

to be presented.


The whole system of American government a)_________ the principles b)_________ in the Constitution and Bill of Rights. The people believe that the government should c)_________ a framework of law and order in which they are much the same pattern as the federal left free to run their own lives.

The state governments d)_________ government. Each has a governor as the chief executive, with power e)_________ among the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches. State governments

f)_________ such affairs as maintaining order, educating children and young adults, and building highways. The federal government g)_________ national problems and international relations and with regional problems that h)_________ more than one state. Laws affecting the daily lives of citizens i)_________ by police in the cities and towns. Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation - the famous FBI - j)_________ criminals who k)_________ state borders or who l)_________ federal laws.

Before an accused person can m)_________ on trail for a serious crime in a federal court -or in the courts of many states - the case must n)_________ o)_________ to a grand jury of private citizens who decide whether there is enough evidence of probable guilt p)_________ a trial.

^ 2. Find in the texts the English equivalents for the following words and expressions

  • избиратель;

  • избирательный округ;

  • объявлять войну;

  • законодатель;

  • международный договор;

  • одобрение Конгресса;

  • внешняя политика;

  • глава исполнительной власти;

  • проводить в жизнь закон;

  • поддерживать правопорядок;

  • выслеживать преступников;

  • быть строго ограниченным;

  • представить дело на рассмотрение жюри присяжных заседателей.

^ 3. Answer the questions.

  1. What are the basic principles which are found at all levels of American government?

  2. How do you understand the saying: "The President proposes, but Congress disposes"?

  3. Who is the chief executive in each state?

  4. What laws do the local police enforce?



Text№ 3

Cost of Government

The average cost of all governments - federal, state and local - to each man, woman and child in the United States is $4,539 a year. About two-thirds of all taxes collected go to the federal government.

The individual income tax provides the federal government slightly less than half its revenues. A person with an average income pays about 11 per cent of it to the government; those with very large incomes must pay up to 50 per cent. Many states also have their own income taxes. Many other taxes - on property, entertainments, automobiles, etc. - are levied to provide funds for national, state and local governments.

Federal government spending for defence purposes, including military help to other nations, has fallen as a portion of total government expenditures from 58.7 per cent in 1958 to 25.7 per cent in fiscal year 1981. The remaining

74.3 per cent of the federal budget has gone into public welfare programmes, development of water and land resources, public health and education. As a result of the expansion and increased costs of government services, the national debt has increased greatly since World War II.

^ 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the expressions below

- взимать налоги;

- средняя стоимость;

- на оборонные цели;

- личные доходы;

- подоходный налог;

- налог на имущество;

- военная помощь другим странам;

- федеральный бюджет;

- национальный долг.

^ 2. Using the information in the unit above, discuss the following questions.

1. What differences are there between: the government of the USA and Congress; the federal and state governments?

2. Which of the two houses of Congress has more power?

3. Which of these people are not elected: the Vice President, the Secretary of State, a Senator, the Supreme Justice, the Attorney General.

4. Which areas of government do these people deal with: the President, the Secretary of Defence, the Secretary of State, the Associate Justices, Representatives in Congress.

5. If the President wants to introduce a new law, what are the functions of the following: the President himself, the House of Representatives, members of the Cabinet?

6. List some similarities and differences between the US system of government and that of your own country.

7. Who has the right of Legislative Initiative?


Text№ 4

Federalism: State and Local Governments

The fifty states are quite diverse in size, population, climate, economy, history, and interests. The fifty state governments often differ from one another, too. Because they often approach political, social, or economic questions differently, the states have been called "laboratories of democracy". However, they do share certain basic structures. The individual states all have republican forms of government with a senate and a house. (There is one exception, Nebraska, which has only one legislative body of 49 "senators"). All have executive branches headed by state governors and independent court systems. Each state has also its own constitution. But all must respect the federal laws and not make laws that interfere with those of the other states (e.g., someone who is divorced under the laws of one state is legally divorced in all). Likewise, cities and local authorities must make their laws and regulations so that they fit their own state's constitution.

The Constitution limits the federal government to specific powers, but modern judicial interpretations of the Constitution have expanded federal responsibilities. All others automatically belong to the states and to the local communities. This has meant that there has always been a battle between federal and state's rights. The traditional American distrust of a too powerful central government has kept the battle fairly even over the years. The states and local communities in the US have rights that in other countries generally belong to the central government.

All education at any level, for example, is the concern of the states. The local communities have the real control at the public school level. They control administration of the schools. They elect the school board officials, and their local community taxes largely support the schools. Each individual school system* therefore hires and fires and pays its own teachers. It sets its own policies within broad state guidelines. Similarly, there is no national police force, the FBI influence being limited to a very few federal crimes, such as kidnapping. Each state has its own state police and its own criminal laws. The same is true with, for example, marriage and divorce laws, driving laws and licenses, drinking laws, and voting procedures. In turn, each city has its own police force that it hires, trains, controls, and organizes. Neither the President nor the governor of a state has direct power over it. By the way, police departments of counties are often called "sheriffs departments". Sheriffs are usually elected, but state and city police officials are not.

There are many other areas which are also the concern of cities, towns, and villages. Among these are opening and closing hours for stores, street and road repair, or architectural laws and other regulations. Also, one local community might decide that a certain magazine is pornographic and forbid its sale, or local school board might determine that a certain novel should not be in their school library. (A court, however, may later tell the community or school board that they have unfairly attempted to exercise censorship.) But another village, a few miles down the road, might accept both. The same is true of films.

Most states and some cities have their own income taxes. Many cities and counties also have their own laws saying who may and may not own a gun. Many airports, some of them international, are owned and controlled by cities or counties and have their own airport police. Finally, a great many of the most hotly debated questions, which in other countries are decided at the national level, are in America settled by the individual states and communities. Among these are, for example, laws about drug use, capital punishment, abortion, and homosexuality.

A connecting thread that runs all the way through governments in the US is the " accountability" of politicians, officials, agencies, and governmental groups. This means that information and records on crimes, fires, marriages and divorces, court cases, property taxes, etc. are public information. It means, for example, that when a small town needs to build a school or buy a new police car, how much it will cost (and which company offered what at what cost) will be in the local newspaper. In some cities, meetings of the city council are carried live on the radio. As a rule, politicians in the US at any level pay considerable attention to public opinion. Ordinary citizens participate actively and directly in decisions that concern them. In some states, such as California, in fact, citizens can petition to have questions (i.e., "propositions") put on the ballot in state elections. If the proposition is approved by the voters, it then becomes a law. This "grass roots" character of American democracy can also be seen in New England town meetings or at the public hearings of local school boards.

Adding this up, America has an enormous variety in its governmental bodies. Its system tries to satisfy the needs and wishes of people at the local level, while at the same time the Constitution guarantees basic rights to anyone, anywhere in America. This has been very important, for instance, to the Civil Rights Movement and its struggle to secure equal rights for all Americans, regardless of race, place of residence, or state voting laws. Therefore, although the states control their own elections as well as the registration procedures for national elections, they cannot make laws that would go against an individual's constitutional rights.

^ 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following expressions below.

- ставить вопрос на голосование;

- расширить круг обязанностей;

- независимо от;

- транслировать по радио в прямом эфире;

- запретить продажу чего-либо;

- городской совет;

- общественное мнение;

- обеспечить равные права.

2. Answer the questions.

1. What are the common principles in the structures of governments of individual states?

2. Who is the head of the executive branch of power in each state?

3. How must laws and constitutions of different states correlate?

4. What is meant by the "battle" between federal and states' rights?

5. Give at least 5 examples of the areas of public life that the states are responsible for.

6. What is a "sheriff department" and who is a sheriff?

7. Are income taxes and prices of goods the same in different states?

8. What is meant by the "accountability" of politicians and officials?


Text№ 5

^ TYPES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Local governments are different from state and federal governments because they do not have constitutions. Local governments receive a charter (a plan of government) from the state government. There are different types of local governments: city, county, town and village. The local charter tells us about the organization of the government.

One of the most important functions or duties of local government is the provision of public schools. People often want to take part in making decisions about the schools because they want their children to get a good education. There are special school boards where parents are the members. The school board makes decisions about teachers salaries, the curriculum and other administrative aspects. They give their opinions about what needs to be done at school.

Local governments have a court system which considers local problems, such as traffic laws and small disputes. Sometimes cases may be appealed to the state courts. Judges in local courts are sometimes called justices of peace or judge and magistrate. Local courts usually specialize in one area of law, for ex, family law, to be sure that a judge is very competent on the subject. Local courts provide efficient legal service.


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